Many standard climatological procedures are questionable. The use of the term “normal” for long-year averages is misleading and contrary to everyday usage for skewed, multimodal, U-shaped frequency distributions. Averages of temperature and precipitation records should not be given to more significant figures than the accuracy of the individual measurements warrants. It is pointed out that precipitation is really not measured but “sampled”. Killing frost and growing season are climatological elements of doubtful value because of microclimatic conditions. Isopleth maps of these and other very discontinuous elements are unsatisfactory representations of conditions.

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Footnotes

* The views expressed in this paper are those of the writer and do not necessarily represent those of the Board.