The annual weather cycle in the Sudan is divided into four seasons according to precipitation regimes. The characteristic flow patterns in the lower troposphere for each season are demonstrated and discussed. The annual migration of the intertropical convergence zone is found to be the most important controlling climatic factor. Some striking differences between continental and maritime tropical meteorology are revealed by the very abrupt wind shear at the intertropical convergence zone over Central Africa and by the marked differences in air mass characteristics on opposite sides of the zone.

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