In August 1951 an unusual airplane reconnaissance of a mature typhoon succeeded in collecting extensive data from the eye and adjacent rain area of the storm. The eye, which was clear except for a low stratocumulus undercast, was circular, 40 miles in diameter, and had a central pressure at the surface of 26.43 inches (895 mb) with a sizable pressure gradient from the center to edge of the eye. Walls of nimbostratus surrounding the eye rose like a huge coliseum to a height of 35,000 feet. Two eye soundings from the surface to 17,000 feet were made, the first at midday, the second in late afternoon. These revealed exceptionally warm temperatures, more than 16° C at 17,000 feet, with lapse rates essentially isothermal from the surface to 10,000 feet. Marked cooling occurred between these two soundings in the layer 7,000–10,000 feet. Horizontally, temperature varied little at 800 feet; at 9,000 feet, however, the eye center was nearly 8 C° warmer, and at 18,000 feet 18 C° warmer than the adjacent rain area. At 9,000 feet, significant temperature gradients were confined primarily to the eye, while at 18,000 feet they were concentrated in the rain area.
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Research Article| 21 August 2018
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Simpson, R. H., 1952: Exploring Eye of Typhoon “Marge,” 1951. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 33, 286–298, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477-33.7.286.
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