An inventory of Soviet meteorological rocket soundings, 1957–1966, is provided, along with a sample of the first detailed observational results published by the Central Aerological Observatory. A description is given of the basic observational technique, involving an assembly of pressure gages and resistance thermometers in a separated nose cone which descends by parachute. Observational accuracies are noted. Similarities and differences in United States and Soviet rocket programs are pointed out, and attention is called to Soviet emphasis on density derivation and on scientific scheduling of launchings for the study of special atmospheric features such as stratospheric warmings.

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