Khubilai Khan, the great Mongol ruler of the 13th century, launched two invasions against Japan: in 1274 and in 1281. In both cases, Mongol, Korean, and Chinese forces, Korean as well as South Chinese seamen and vessels were involved. Particularly large was the armada of the second invasion. In both cases the landings took place along the NW coast of Kyūshū, the major Japanese island closest to Korea. Both invasions were abruptly terminated by severe storms at sea, west of Kyūshū. Historians seem to agree that the storm of 1281 was a typhoon. The storms caused heavy losses in manpower and vessels to the invaders. We quote some contemporary records describing the catastrophic effects of the tempests.
great historical events that were significantly affected by the weather: I. the Mongol invasions of Japan
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Neumann, J., 1975: great historical events that were significantly affected by the weather: I. the Mongol invasions of Japan. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 56, 1167–1171, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1975)056<1167:GHETWS>2.0.CO;2.
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