Complicated internal-wave patterns are revealed in Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) photographs of marine fog patches. Evidence for the reflection of atmospheric wave packets at water-land boundaries is contained in these patterns. Photographs of “arc,” or “ring,” clouds show that these clouds are associated with decaying maritime cumulonimbus clouds. The cloud-free inner ring delineates cold air that has been transported from aloft by thunderstorm downdrafts, thus inhibiting cumulus cloud development. There is no evidence to indicate that this clear inner ring is a result of cold-core eddies in the ocean. Other interesting cloud patterns revealed by ASTP photographs include 1) linear trails created in low stratocumulus cloud decks by passing ships, and 2) dome-shaped anvil clouds created by vigorous thunderstorms.
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Research Article| 1 November 1978
Mesoscale Cloud Patterns Revealed by Apollo-Soyuz Photographs
Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. (1978) 59 (11): 1409–1419.
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Black, P. G., 1978: Mesoscale Cloud Patterns Revealed by Apollo-Soyuz Photographs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 59, 1409–1419, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1978)059<1409:MCPRBA>2.0.CO;2.
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