Quantitative observational guidelines have been developed for the study and forecasting of mesoscale events and cyclone events; many of these guidelines have resulted from major meteorological field programs. Increasingly sophisticated satellite-borne instruments in low and geosynchronous orbits have provided valuable measurements of these events. The major deficiencies in the measurements taken from geosynchronous orbit today, relative to these guidelines, are 1) the lack of temperature profiles and moisture profiles below clouds, and the poor vertical resolution of these profiles; 2) the insufficient combination of spatial resolution and temporal resolution and spectral intervals available in generating images (imaging) and 3) the lack of accurate precipitation mapping. Considerably more-powerful instrumentation is possible on geosynchronous satellites that can substantially reduce these deficiencies. The capability of advanced geosynchronous observations and those expected with future instrumentation in low-orbit are evaluated with respect to tropical cyclone and severe local-storm observational guidelines. A high percentage of the guidelines are expected to be fulfilled with geosynchronous measurements: 1) using microwave instruments for imaging and for obtaining temperature profiles and moisture profiles, 2) very high spectral-resolution infrared profiling, 3) very high spatial-resolution and very high temporal-resolution imaging, and 4) ozone mapping.

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Footnotes

1 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771.

2 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

3 University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.