As part of the U.K. contribution to the international Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study, a series of three related projects—DOGEE, SEASAW, and HiWASE—undertook experimental studies of the processes controlling the physical exchange of gases and sea spray aerosol at the sea surface. The studies share a common goal: to reduce the high degree of uncertainty in current parameterization schemes. The wide variety of measurements made during the studies, which incorporated tracer and surfactant release experiments, included direct eddy correlation fluxes, detailed wave spectra, wind history, photographic retrievals of whitecap fraction, aerosolsize spectra and composition, surfactant concentration, and bubble populations in the ocean mixed layer. Measurements were made during three cruises in the northeast Atlantic on the RRS Discovery during 2006 and 2007; a fourth campaign has been making continuous measurements on the Norwegian weather ship Polarfront since September 2006. This paper provides an overview of the three projects and some of the highlights of the measurement campaigns.

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Footnotes

University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom

National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom

University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, United Kingdom

Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

University of Montana, Missoula, Montana

University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii

Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Texel, The Netherlands

University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida

National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario, Canada

University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island

Finnish Meteorological Institute and University of Helsinki, Finland

Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen, Norway

University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom

University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

University of Galway, Galway, Ireland

UHI Millennium Institute, Thurso, United Kingdom

ADDITIONAL AFFILIATION: TNO B&O, Utrecht, The Netherlands

A supplement to this article is available online (10.1175/2008BAMS2578.2)