Understanding how science is co-produced is a science unto itself. Using the case of Project Hyperion, we illustrate how co-production works (or does not work) in practice.
Developing decision-relevant science for adaptation requires the identification of climatic parameters that are both actionable for practitioners as well as tractable for modelers. In many sectors, these decision-relevant climatic metrics and the approaches that enable their identification remain largely unknown. “Co-production” of science with scientists and decision-makers is one potential way to identify these metrics, but there is little research describing specific and successful co-production approaches. This paper examines the negotiations and outcomes from Project Hyperion, wherein scientists and water managers jointly developed decision-relevant climatic metrics for adaptive water management. We identify successful co-production strategies by analyzing the project’s numerous back-and-forth engagements and tracing the evolution of the science during these engagements. We found that effective mediation between scientists and managers needed dedicated “boundary spanners” with significant modeling expertise. Translating practitioners' information needs into tractable climatic metrics required direct and indirect methods of eliciting knowledge. We identified four indirect methods that were particularly salient for extracting tacitly-held knowledge and enabling shared learning: developing a hierarchical framework linking management issues with metrics; starting discussions from the planning challenges; collaboratively exploring the planning relevance of new scientific capabilities; and using analogies of other ‘good’ metrics. The decision-relevant metrics we developed provide insights into advancing adaptation-relevant climate science in the water sector. The co-production strategies we identified can be used to design and implement productive scientist-decision-maker interactions. Overall, the approaches and metrics we developed can help climate science to expand in new and more use-inspired directions.