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ShaoPeng Che
,
Kai Kuang
, and
Shujun Liu

Abstract

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increasingly played pivotal roles in shaping climate agendas and mobilizing individuals to engage in environmental initiatives. However, the nature of NGOs’ online interaction with users, especially in developing countries, remains largely unexplored. This study focused on the dynamics of engagement between a Chinese NGO, Chinese Weather Enthusiasts (CWE), and Chinese youth on the social media platform of Bilibili. The research comprised two main components. First, named entity recognition was employed to analyze weather-related terms in CWE’s posts on Bilibili, and dynamic topic modeling was utilized to uncover shifts in thematic focus. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and negative binomial regression were employed to investigate the correlation between weather types and user engagement metrics. The study unveiled two noteworthy findings: first, CWE posts are closely linked to short-term weather, providing timely content that may meet the public’s demand for climate information. Second, the engagement of Chinese youth users is not affected by extreme weather types. Future research should continue to elucidate strategies that NGOs can employ to enhance online engagement among youth users.

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James E. Overland
,
Elizabeth Siddon
,
Gay Sheffield
,
Thomas J. Ballinger
, and
Cody Szuwalski

Abstract

Our goal is to tie climate-scale meteorology to regional physics and ecosystem changes and demonstrate a few resulting impacts to which regional peoples are having to respond in the Alaskan Bering Strait region. The sea ice loss events in the winters of 2017/18 and 2018/19 initiated a series of marine environmental, ecological, and industrial changes through a chain of connected events from jet-stream meanders, storms, southerly winds, warmer sea temperatures, and minimum sea ice cover. Resulting impacts continue as coastal communities respond to ongoing nutritional, cultural, and economic challenges. Global warming potentially initiated these events through a weakened atmospheric Arctic Front. Ecological shifts included a transition/reorganization of the Bering Strait regional marine ecosystem. Subsequent changes included shifts in zooplankton species, increases in large-bodied, predatory fish species moving northward, an ice seal unusual mortality event, and seven consecutive years of multispecies seabird die-offs. These changes in the marine ecosystem create a serious food security concern. Ongoing impacts include large, toxic harmful algal blooms and coastal erosion. Recent changes to the maritime industries of the transboundary waters of the Bering Strait include increased industrial ship traffic, planned development of the Port of Nome, and northward proximity of foreign fishing activity. Projections for the next decades are for an increasing frequency of low sea ice years and continuing ecosystem and industrial transitions that contribute to increasing economic and food security concerns for the 16 coastal communities that compose the Bering Strait region.

Significance Statement

Extreme events in the atmosphere/oceans and resultant record sea ice minimums in 2018 and 2019 were manifested in marine ecosystem transitions and maritime industry impacts. This led to ongoing concerns over the food safety and food security of marine resources essential to the nutritional, cultural, and economic well-being of Alaskan coastal communities of the Bering Strait region. Persistent weakening of the Arctic Front may signal an increased frequency of low sea ice events into the next decades.

Open access
Free access
Shah Md Atiqul Haq
,
Arnika Tabassum Arno
,
Shamim Al Aziz Lalin
, and
Mufti Nadimul Quamar Ahmed

Abstract

Extreme weather events (EWEs) linked to climate change are expected to increase in frequency in the coming years, putting the entire world in danger. Parents exert a significant influence on the lives of their children and the overall function of the family unit. However, natural disasters have a significant impact on daily life and pose an immediate danger, resulting in loss of life, injuries, and property damage. In addition, disasters can also have an impact on the responsibilities that parents play in their house. This study examines the evolving dynamics of parental roles in the context of EWEs, examining the shifting expectations and actual realities of fatherhood and motherhood. The study examines the various effects of EWEs on family structures, gender roles, and parental obligations by conducting a comprehensive review of 30 relevant articles. Our findings indicate that in severe weather conditions, men tend to adopt the position of “father” and are perceived as heroic figures, rescuers, and guardians/protectors who prioritize the well-being of their children and families, as well as take on financial obligations. On the other hand, women are often viewed as caregivers/rescuers/victims during such conditions. Moreover, in many countries, women are expected to care for other family members, including younger children and the elderly, which may limit their mobility during severe weather. Extreme weather conditions affect men and women differently, and there may also be significant differences in gender-related expectations and dimensions within a country. It is therefore essential to thoroughly study how these roles change in response to extreme weather events. We recommend conducting additional rigorous studies, both quantitative and qualitative, to comprehensively examine this relationship. This study will aid in designing initiatives aimed at fostering parenting attributes, particularly in regions susceptible to disasters.

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Zeying Huang
,
Jungmin Lim
, and
Mark Skidmore

Abstract

Extreme heat events stress the body and can result in fatalities, especially for those with underlying health problems. Air pollution is another threat to health and is an important confounder of extreme heat risks. However, previous empirical studies that have addressed the joint health impacts of air pollution and heat rarely considered the endogeneity and spillover effects of air pollution. To fill this research gap, this article investigates the interconnected impacts of extreme heat and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on all-cause and cause-specific mortality. We correct the endogeneity of PM2.5 by applying the control function approach and explore transboundary externalities of all-source PM2.5 and wildfire-caused PM2.5. We use a county-year balanced panel dataset covering 2992 U.S. counties from 2001 through 2011. Results show that extreme heat and air pollution exacerbate each other and jointly increase mortality. Specifically, a 1-standard-deviation (SD) increase in the heat index results in 0.60% (95% confidence interval: 0.26%–0.97%), 2.14% (1.34%–2.94%), and 0.86% (0.41%–1.34%) more all-cause fatalities, fatalities from respiratory system diseases, and fatalities from circulatory system diseases, respectively. A 1-SD increase in PM2.5 results in 5.75% (3.61%–7.90%), 6.99% (3.01%–11.15%), and 2.93% (0.66%–5.28%) additional fatalities, respectively. Failure to consider the endogeneity of PM2.5 leads to a substantial underestimation of PM2.5 risk. In addition, our instrumental variable strategy offers evidence of spillover effects from PM2.5 and wildfires.

Significance Statement

This study illustrates how extreme heat events combined with air pollutants threaten health. This article investigates the interconnected impact of extreme heat and air pollution using data from 2992 United States counties over the 2001–11 period. Results indicate that extreme heat and air pollution jointly increase mortality. Results also show that wind-driven pollution from other counties and wildfires increase mortality.

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Jelmer Jeuring
,
Eirik Mikal Samuelsen
,
Machiel Lamers
,
Malte Müller
,
Bjørn Åge Hjøllo
,
Laurent Bertino
, and
Berit Hagen

Abstract

Previous research indicates that forecast uncertainty can, in certain formats and decision contexts, provide actionable insights that help users in their decision-making. However, how to best disseminate forecast uncertainty, which factors affect successful uptake, and how forecast uncertainty transforms into better decision-making remains an ongoing topic for discussion in both academic and operational contexts. Interpreting and using visualizations of forecast uncertainty are not straightforward, and choosing how to represent uncertainty in forecast products should be dependent on the specific audience in mind. We present findings from an interactive stakeholder workshop that aimed to advance context-based insights on the usability of graphical representations of forecast uncertainty in the field of maritime operations. The workshop involved participants from various maritime sectors, including cruise tourism, fisheries, government, private forecast service providers, and research/academia. Geographically situated in Norway, the workshop employed sea spray icing as a use case for various decision scenario exercises, using both fixed probability and fixed threshold formats, supplemented with temporal ensemble diagrams. Accumulated operational expertise and characteristics of the forecast information itself, such as color coding and different forms of forecast uncertainty visualizations, were found to affect perceptions of decision-making quality. Findings can inform codesign processes of translating ensemble forecasts into usable and useful public and commercial forecast information services. The collaborative nature of the workshop facilitated knowledge sharing and coproduction between forecast providers and users. Overall, the study highlights the importance of incorporating methodological approaches that consider the complex and dynamic operational contexts of ensemble-based forecast provision, communication, and use.

Significance Statement

We wanted to understand how maps showing uncertainty in weather forecasts can help maritime users in their operational decisions. We organized a workshop with Norwegian maritime stakeholders and forecasters, who interpreted maps that combined layers of maritime operational activities and the likelihood of sea spray icing (an important hazard for ships operating on higher latitudes). The results show that contextual knowledge, and the use visual formats such as traffic light colors may help users to understand the maps. The results will help to better communicate weather forecasts to maritime users and gives suggestions about how to involve users in codesigning forecast products. Follow-up research could use our approach to investigate other hazardous conditions, such as wind, waves and sea ice.

Open access
Yu Yu
,
Lei Cao
,
Zhihua Ren
,
Yan Xu
,
Wei Feng
, and
Licheng Zhao

Abstract

Crowdsourced meteorological data may provide a useful supplement to operational observations. However, the willingness of various parties to share their data remains unclear. Here, a survey on data applications was carried out to investigate the willingness to participate in crowdsourcing observations. Of the 21 responses, 71% expressed difficulty in meeting the requirement of data services using only their own observations and revealed that they would be willing to exchange data with other parties under some framework; moreover, 90% expressed a willingness to participate in crowdsourcing observations. The findings suggest that in a way the social foundation of crowdsourcing has been established in China. Additionally, a case study on precipitation monitoring was performed in Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong Province, South China. Three sources of hourly measurements were combined after data quality control and calibration and interpolated over Guangzhou (gridded precipitation was based on combined data, and it is referred to as the COM grid). Subsequently, the COM grid was compared with the grid data based only on observations from the China Meteorological Administration using three indices, namely, cumulative precipitation, precipitation intensity, and heavy rain hours. The results indicate that requirement for more observations could benefit from crowdsourced data, especially on uneven terrain and in regions covered by sparse surface stations.

Open access
Maité Morales-Medina
,
Ana P. Ortíz-Martínez
,
Cynthia M. Pérez-Cardona
,
Digna Rueda-Roa
,
Daniel Otis
,
Edgar Pérez-Matías
,
Frank Muller-Karger
,
Olga Mayol-Bracero
, and
Pablo Méndez-Lázaro

Abstract

An extreme Saharan dust storm (named Godzilla) arrived at the Caribbean region in June 2020, deteriorating the air quality to hazardous levels and unhealthy conditions for sensitive groups of people. Our main objective was to characterize populations at risk for Saharan dust by analyzing distribution and levels of dust events in Puerto Rico, and by conducting an online survey to assess community perceptions on Saharan dust health effects. Three daily satellite aerosols products from 2013 to 2020 were retrieved from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite over Puerto Rico to better understand the patterns, frequency, and seasonality of aerosols. The atmospheric results indicated that extreme values (>99th) of big size aerosols (e.g., Sahara dust) were observed over Puerto Rico on 22 June 2020. A total of 1504 qualified people participated in the survey during the summer of 2020, and it was analyzed with descriptive statistics, frequency analysis, and chi-square tests. 51% of the survey participants were on the age group of 25–44 years old, and 65% of the participants had at least one preexisting health condition (respiratory diseases 27%; cardiovascular diseases 28%). Nearly 90% of the participants indicated that Saharan dust affected the health status of both the respondents and their family members. Irritation of eyes (22%), nose (24%), and throat (23%), as well as breathing difficulties (10%), were the most common symptoms reported. Understanding patients’ health profiles associated with Saharan dust is essential before developing public health strategies to minimize exacerbation of health conditions in Puerto Rico.

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Andrea Mah
,
Carolina Aragón
, and
Ezra Markowitz

Abstract

To support human flourishing in a climate-changed world, individuals and communities will have to take costly and challenging adaptation actions. Although there is evidence of increasing public concern over climate change, current levels of engagement and adaptation action remain insufficient. There is a need for innovative ways to bring individuals and communities into the climate movement. Public art installations that creatively communicate relevant aspects of the problem may represent one largely untapped pathway to greater levels of engagement. Here, we examined how virtual exposure to a public art installation, FutureSHORELINE, impacted climate change risk perceptions, attitudes, behaviors, and emotions. The installation depicted sea level rise impacts and solutions for a shoreline area in Boston, Massachusetts. In study 1 (N = 474), participants were randomly assigned to view the art in different formats: video, stills, or 360° viewers. Exposure to this installation, in any format, was associated with greater perceived risk of climate change, feelings of personal responsibility to address climate change, and likelihood of engaging in community-led initiatives related to climate change as compared with pre-art-exposure levels. In study 2 (N = 294), the video was compared, with and without text, with a no-information control. This study revealed that the video impacted emotional reactions to climate change. Public art installations may present a model by which to make information about the local impacts of climate change and proposed adaptation solutions visible to diverse audiences, providing a novel way to increase public concern and engagement.

Significance Statement

While much climate change art has been created, efforts to systematically evaluate its impacts are sparse. The purpose of this work was to examine how viewing a landscape installation impacted climate change and sea level rise perceptions. Across two studies, we evaluated the impacts of viewing a Boston (Massachusetts)-based landscape installation depicting the impacts of, and a solution to, sea level rise and flooding. Our results highlight the potential usefulness of art as a means of communicating about climate change.

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Zhudeng Wei
and
Beibei Li

Abstract

Famine poses a significant threat to human food security and sustainable development. This study investigates the prevalence and magnitude of famine and its connection to climatic change/disasters at different spatiotemporal scales. The famine index was reconstructed using 13 828 famine-related literature records in China during the Qing Dynasty (CE 1644–1911). The study found that extreme drought/flood events instantaneously triggered famine at the seasonal to interannual scale, leading to intermittent occurrences of great famines. Drought-induced famine was the most prominent. Famine was positively correlated with drought in both short-term variations and long-term trends across different regions. The effect of floods on famines was double-edged and varied between the north and south of China. The severe famines that occurred between 1811 and 1878 were related to both climatic cooling and an increase in drought/flood events under a situation of growing population pressure on resources. The greatest famine of 1876–78 was probably the result of long-term interactions among intensifying human–land contradictions since the early nineteenth century, periodic droughts in north China, and a weakening of regional buffering mechanisms due to flood-induced declines in south China.

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