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Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The 1997 Atlantic hurricane season is summarized and the year’s tropical storms, hurricanes, and one subtropical storm are described. The tropical cyclones were relatively few in number, short lived, and weak compared to long-term climatology. Most systems originated outside the deep Tropics. Hurricane Danny was the only system to make landfall. It produced rainfall totals to near 1 m in southern Alabama and is blamed for five deaths. Hurricane Erika was responsible for the season’s two other fatalities, in the coastal waters of Puerto Rico.

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Mark A. Lander, Eric J. Trehubenko, and Charles P. Guard

Abstract

This paper is an annual summary of the Eastern Hemisphere tropical cyclones of 1996. The tropical cyclone statistics presented derive from records at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, Guam. Although the text focuses on the tropical cyclones that occurred in the western North Pacific during 1996, it also includes brief summaries of the tropical cyclones in the north Indian Ocean, south Indian Ocean, and the South Pacific. Overall, 1996 was an active year in the Eastern Hemisphere: the 28 tropical cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere were near normal, while the number of tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific and in the North Indian Ocean was above normal. The large-scale circulation anomalies typical of a cold phase (La Niña) of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) continued until late in the year when strong equatorial westerly winds pushed eastward. In retrospect, the return of near-normal mean monthly monsoonal flow to the tropical Pacific during November and December of 1996—punctuated by two intense equatorial westerly wind bursts—may have signaled the onset of the strong 1997 El Niño.

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Richard J. Pasch and Lixion A. Avila

Abstract

A summary of the 1996 Atlantic hurricane season is given, and the individual tropical storms and hurricanes are described. This was the second active year in a row with a large number of intense hurricanes. Hurricane Fran, which hit the coast of North Carolina, was the strongest system to make landfall, and also the most destructive.

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Max Mayfield and Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The National Hurricane Center (a component of the Tropical Prediction Center) tracked nine tropical storms, five of which became hurricanes, during the 1996 eastern North Pacific hurricane season. Five tropical storms or hurricanes made landfall in Mexico. An overview of the 1996 hurricane season is presented.

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M. B. Lawrence, B. M. Mayfield, L. A. Avila, R. J. Pasch, and E. N. Rappaport

Abstract

The 1995 Atlantic hurricane season is described. There were eight tropical storms and 11 hurricanes for a total of 19 named tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin during 1995. This is the second-largest number of tropical storms and hurricanes in over 100 years of records. Thirteen named tropical cyclones affected land.

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Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, and Jiann-Gwo Jiing

Abstract

Totals of 70 and 63 tropical waves (also known as African or easterly waves) were counted in the Atlantic basin during the 1994 and 1995 hurricane seasons. These waves led to the formation of 9 of the 12 total number of tropical cyclones in 1994 and 19 of the 21 total number of tropical cyclones in 1995. Tropical waves contributed to the formation of 75% of the eastern Pacific tropical cyclones in 1994 and 73% in 1995. Upper- and lower-level prevailing wind patterns observed during the below-normal season of 1994 and the very active one of 1995 are discussed. Tropical wave characteristics between the two years are compared.

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Edward N. Rappaport, Lixion A. Avila, Miles B. Lawrence, Max Mayfield, and Richard J. Pasch

Abstract

The 1995 eastern North Pacific hurricane season is reviewed. The activity comprised 11 tropical cyclones, consisting of seven hurricanes, three tropical storms, and one tropical depression. Hurricane Ismael caused a large loss of life in the southern Gulf of California.

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Mark A. Lander and Michael D. Angove

Abstract

This paper is designed to be an annual summary of the Eastern Hemisphere tropical cyclones of 1995. The tropical cyclone statistics presented are those of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, Guam. The text focuses primarily upon the tropical cyclones that occurred in the western North Pacific during 1995; however, since the area of responsibility of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center covers the entire Eastern Hemisphere, brief summaries of the tropical cyclone activity within the north Indian Ocean, south Indian Ocean, and the southwest Pacific are also presented. Overall, 1995 was a relatively quiet year in the Eastern Hemisphere: the 22 tropical cyclones of the Southern Hemisphere were only one shy of the record low of 21, and for the first time since 1988 the number of tropical storms and typhoons in the western North Pacific was below normal. In the western North Pacific, there was a marked shift to the west of the preferred region for the genesis and development of tropical cyclones. This is consistent with the end of persistent large-scale circulation anomalies characteristic of the warm phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the onset (during 1995) of weak ENSO cold-phase anomalies (i.e., La Niña conditions).

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Lixion A. Avila and Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The 1994 Atlantic hurricane season had only three hurricanes forming from just seven tropical storms. Several of these tropical cyclones, however, caused loss of life and great damage. Gordon, as a tropical storm, produced floods that killed more than 1100 people in Haiti. Alberto, Beryl, and Gordon hit the United States, causing 38 deaths and nearly $1 billion in damage over the southeastern states.

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Richard J. Pasch and Max Mayfield

Abstract

An account of the 1994 hurricane season in the eastern North Pacific Ocean is given. The numbers of hurricanes and tropical storms were near normal, but the activity tended to occur farther to the west in the basin than usual. Hurricane Rosa was the only system of the season to make landfall.

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