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Zhijuan Liu, Xiaoguang Yang, Xiaomao Lin, Kenneth G. Hubbard, Shuo Lv, and Jing Wang

Abstract

Northeast China (NEC) is one of the major agricultural production areas in China, producing about 30% of China’s total maize output. In the past five decades, maize yields in NEC increased rapidly. However, farmer yields still have potential to be increased. Therefore, it is important to quantify the impacts of agronomic factors, including soil physical properties, cultivar selections, and management practices on yield gaps of maize under the changing climate in NEC in order to provide reliable recommendations to narrow down the yield gaps. In this study, the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)-Maize model was used to separate the contributions of soil physical properties, cultivar selections, and management practices to maize yield gaps. The results indicate that approximately 5%, 12%, and 18% of potential yield loss of maize is attributable to soil physical properties, cultivar selection, and management practices. Simulation analyses showed that potential ascensions of yield of maize by improving soil physical properties PAYs, changing to cultivar with longer maturity PAYc, and improving management practices PAYm for the entire region were 0.6, 1.5, and 2.2 ton ha−1 or 9%, 23%, and 34% increases, respectively, in NEC. In addition, PAYc and PAYm varied considerably from location to location (0.4 to 2.2 and 0.9 to 4.5 ton ha−1 respectively), which may be associated with the spatial variation of growing season temperature and precipitation among climate zones in NEC. Therefore, changing to cultivars with longer growing season requirement and improving management practices are the top strategies for improving yield of maize in NEC, especially for the north and west areas.

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Madhavi Jain, A. P. Dimri, and D. Niyogi

Abstract

Recent decades have witnessed rapid urbanization and urban population growth resulting in urban sprawl of cities. This paper analyzes the spatiotemporal dynamics of the urbanization process (using remote sensing and spatial metrics) that has occurred in Delhi, the capital city of India, which is divided into nine districts. The urban patterns and processes within the nine administrative districts of the city based on raw satellite data have been taken into consideration. Area, population, patch, edge, and shape metrics along with Pearson’s chi statistics and Shannon’s entropy have been calculated. Three types of urban patterns exist in the city: 1) highly sprawled districts, namely, West, North, North East, and East; 2) medium sprawled districts, namely, North West, South, and South West; and 3) least sprawled districts—Central and New Delhi. Relative entropy, which scales Shannon’s entropy values from 0 to 1, is calculated for the districts and time spans. Its values are 0.80, 0.92, and 0.50 from 1977 to 1993, 1993 to 2006, and 2006 to 2014, respectively, indicating a high degree of urban sprawl. Parametric and nonparametric correlation tests suggest the existence of associations between built-up density and population density, area-weighted mean patch fractal dimension (AWMPFD) and area-weighted mean shape index (AWMSI), compactness index and edge density, normalized compactness index and number of patches, and AWMPFD and built-up density.

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Xiaosong Li and Jin Zhang

Abstract

The green vegetation fraction Fg, which represents the horizontal density of live vegetation, is an important parameter for the study of global energy, carbon, hydrological, and biogeochemical cycling. A common method of calculating Fg is to create a simple linear mixing model between two NDVI endmembers: bare soil NDVI, , and full vegetation NDVI, . However, many uncertainties exist for the determination of these parameters at large scales. The present study investigates how and determination can impact Fg calculations for all of China, based on different land-cover datasets, hyperspectral data, and soil type classification maps. The results show the following: 1) The regional ChinaCover dataset, with higher accuracy and more detailed classification, is preferable for calculating Fg in China, compared with the most commonly used MOD12Q1 dataset, although it would not lead to too much difference in values. 2) The soil NDVI from Hyperion datasets shows that soils have highly variable NDVI values (0.006–0.2), and 79.36% of the area studied has a much larger NDVI value than the commonly used value of 0.05. Therefore, the dynamic values with different soil types are much better for Fg calculation than the invariant value (0.05), which would yield a significant overestimation of Fg, especially for areas with low vegetation coverage. 3) A high-quality Fg dataset for China from 2000 to 2010 was established with and parameters based on MOD13Q1 250-m NDVI data.

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

Abstract

The impacts of land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) on tropospheric temperatures are investigated in this study using the fully coupled Community Earth System Model. Two simulations are performed using potential and current vegetation cover. The results show that LULCC can induce detectable changes in the tropospheric air temperature. Although the influence of LULCC on tropospheric temperature is weak, a significant influence can still be found below 300 hPa in summer over land. Compared to the global-mean temperature change, LULCC-induced changes in the regional-mean air temperature can be 2–3 times larger in the middle–upper troposphere and approximately 8 times larger in the lower troposphere. In East Asia and South Asia, LULCC is shown to produce significant decreases (0.2° to 0.4°C) in air temperature in the middle–upper troposphere in spring and autumn due to the largest decrease in the latent heat release from precipitation. In Europe and North America, the most significant tropospheric cooling occurs in summer, which can be attributed to the significant decrease in the absorbed solar radiation and sensible heat flux during this season. In addition to local effects, LULCC also induces nonlocal responses in the tropospheric air temperature that are characterized by significant decreases over the leeward sides of LULCC regions, which include East Asia–western North Pacific Ocean, Mediterranean Sea–North Africa, North America–Atlantic Ocean, and North America–eastern Pacific. Cooling in the leeward sides of LULCC regions is primarily caused by an enhanced cold advection induced by LULCC.

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Avijit Gangopadhyay, Ayan H. Chaudhuri, and Arnold H. Taylor

Abstract

The response of the Gulf Stream (GS) system to atmospheric forcing is generally linked either to the basin-scale winds on the subtropical gyre or to the buoyancy forcing from the Labrador Sea. This study presents a multiscale synergistic perspective to describe the low-frequency response of the GS system. The authors identify dominant temporal variability in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), in known indices of the GS path, and in the observed GS latitudes along its path derived from sea surface height (SSH) contours over the period 1993–2013. The analysis suggests that the signature of interannual variability changes along the stream’s path from 75° to 55°W. From its separation at Cape Hatteras to the west of 65°W, the variability of the GS is mainly in the near-decadal (7–10 years) band, which is missing to the east of 60°W, where a new interannual (4–5 years) band peaks. The latter peak (4–5 years) was missing to the west of 65°W. The region between 65° and 60°W seems to be a transition region. A 2–3-yr secondary peak was pervasive in all time series, including that for the NAO. This multiscale response of the GS system is supported by results from a basin-scale North Atlantic model. The near-decadal response can be attributed to similar forcing periods in the NAO signal; however, the interannual variability of 4–5 years in the eastern segment of the GS path is as yet unexplained. More numerical and observational studies are warranted to understand such causality.

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Edward Armstrong, Paul Valdes, Jo House, and Joy Singarayer

Abstract

Human-induced land-use change (LUC) alters the biogeophysical characteristics of the land surface influencing the surface energy balance. The level of atmospheric CO2 is expected to increase in the coming century and beyond, modifying temperature and precipitation patterns and altering the distribution and physiology of natural vegetation. It is important to constrain how CO2-induced climate and vegetation change may influence the regional extent to which LUC alters climate. This sensitivity study uses the HadCM3 coupled climate model under a range of equilibrium forcings to show that the impact of LUC declines under increasing atmospheric CO2, specifically in temperate and boreal regions. A surface energy balance analysis is used to diagnose how these changes occur. In Northern Hemisphere winter this pattern is attributed in part to the decline in winter snow cover and in the summer due to a reduction in latent cooling with higher levels of CO2. The CO2-induced change in natural vegetation distribution is also shown to play a significant role. Simulations run at elevated CO2, yet present-day vegetation show a significantly increased sensitivity to LUC, driven in part by an increase in latent cooling. This study shows that modeling the impact of LUC needs to accurately simulate CO2-driven changes in precipitation and snowfall and incorporate accurate, dynamic vegetation distribution.

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Yaqian He and Eungul Lee

Abstract

Regional land surface and remote ocean variables have been considered as primary forcings altering the variability of summer rainfall over the Sahel. However, previous studies usually examined the two components separately. In this study, the authors apply statistical methods including correlation, multivariate linear regression, and Granger causality analyses to investigate the relative roles of spring–summer sea surface temperature (SST) and vegetation activity in explaining the Sahel summer rainfall variability from 1982 to 2006. The remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used as an indicator of land surface forcing. This study shows that spring and summer SSTs over the subtropical North Atlantic have significant positive correlations with summer rainfall. The spring and summer NDVIs over the Sahel have significant negative and positive correlations, respectively, with summer rainfall. Based on the multivariate linear regression analysis, the adjusted R 2 for the integrated model with both the land and ocean variables is 0.70. It is around 2 times larger than the model with SST alone (adjusted R 2 = 0.36). To further investigate the causal relationships of summer rainfall with the SST and NDVI variables selected in the integrated multivariate model, the authors perform a Granger causality test. This study finds that summer NDVI over the Sahel does Granger cause summer rainfall over the Sahel, while the summer SST over the subtropical North Atlantic does not Granger cause the summer rainfall. The results indicate that the regional land surface forcing has a relatively strong contribution to Sahel summer rainfall, compared to the remote ocean forcing, during the recent decades.

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Jean-Sébastien Landry, Navin Ramankutty, and Lael Parrott

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Stand-clearing disturbances, which remove most of the tree cover but are followed by forest regrowth, affect extensive areas annually, yet each event is usually much smaller than a typical grid cell in Earth system climate models. This study argues that the approach taken to account for the resulting subgrid cell dynamic heterogeneity substantially affects the computation of land–atmosphere exchanges. The authors investigated in a simplified model the effects of three such approaches on the computation of albedo over boreal forests. It was found that the simplest approach—in which any new disturbance-created patch was immediately merged with the rest of the grid cell—underestimated the annual reflected solar radiation by ~3 W m−2 on average (a relative error of 15%) compared with the most accurate approach—in which albedo computations were performed for each individual subgrid patch. This study also investigated an intermediate approach, in which each patch was tracked individually, but albedo was estimated from a much smaller number of subgrid tiles grouping patches having a similar amount of tree cover. Results from this third approach converged quickly toward the most accurate results as the number of tiles increased and were robust to changes in the thresholds used to assign patches to specific tiles. When computing time prevents implementing the most accurate approach in Earth system climate models, the results advocate for using strategies similar to the intermediate approach in order to avoid biasing the net radiative forcing of stand-clearing disturbances toward a warming impact, at least over boreal forests.

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Aiwen Lin, Hongji Zhu, Lunche Wang, Wei Gong, and Ling Zou

Abstract

Measurements of air temperature and precipitation at 35 stations in Hubei Province, China, during 1962–2011 are used to investigate the regional climate change. There is an increasing trend for observed air temperature (0.23°C decade−1), which is slightly higher than that from multiple model simulations/predictions [phase 5 of CMIP (CMIP5) datasets] (0.16°C decade−1). The observed precipitation increases at the rate of 11.4 mm decade−1, while the CMIP5 results indicate a much lower decreasing trend (0.8 mm decade−1) in this region. To examine the ecological responses to the climate changes in Hubei Province, annual gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) products during 2000–10 and leaf area index (LAI) products during 1981–2011 are also analyzed. It is discovered that GPP, NPP, and LAI increase at the rate of 1.8 TgC yr−1 yr−1, 1.1 TgC yr−1 yr−1, and 0.14 m2 m−2 decade−1, respectively. A linear model is further used to conduct the correlation analyses between climatic parameters (i.e., air temperature and precipitation) and ecological indicators (i.e., GPP, NPP, and LAI). The results indicate that the air temperature has a significant positive correlation with LAI (R 2 = 0.311) and GPP (R 2 = 0.189); precipitation is positively correlated with NPP (R 2 = 0.209). Thus, it is concluded that the air temperature exerts a stronger effect on the ecosystem than precipitation in Hubei Province over the past decades.

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Steven L. Marcus

Abstract

Previous studies have shown strong negative correlation between multidecadal signatures in length of day (LOD)—an inverse measure of Earth’s rotational rate—and various climate indices. Mechanisms remain elusive. Climate processes are insufficient to explain observed rotational variability, leading many to hypothesize external (astronomical) forcing as a common source for observed low-frequency signatures. Here, an internal source, a core-to-climate, one-way chain of causality, is hypothesized. To test hypothesis feasibility, a recently published, model-estimated forced component is removed from an observed dataset of Northern Hemisphere (NH) surface temperatures to isolate the intrinsic component of climate variability, enhancing its comparison with LOD. To further explore the rotational connection to climate indices, the LOD anomaly record is compared with sea surface temperatures (SSTs)—global and regional. Because climate variability is most intensely expressed in the North Atlantic sector, LOD is compared to the dominant oceanic pattern there—the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). Results reveal that the LOD-related signal is more global than regional, being greater in the global SST record than in the AMO or in global-mean (land + ocean) or land-only surface temperatures. Furthermore, the strong (4σ) correlation of LOD with the estimated NH intrinsic component is consistent with the view proffered here, one of an internally generated, core-to-climate process imprinted on both the climate and Earth’s rotational rate. While the exact mechanism is not elucidated by this study’s results, reported correlations of geomagnetic and volcanic activity with LOD offer prospects to explain observations in the context of a core-to-climate chain of causality.

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