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John Marwitz

Abstract

The winter orographic storms over the San Juan Mountains and the Sierra Nevada are compared. The topography of the San Juans is complex while the Sierra barrier is comparatively simple. The barrier jet is well developed upwind of the Sierra Nevada and its development is restricted upwind of the San Juans. The major difference between the storms on the two barriers is that the Sierra Nevada storms are typically maritime while the San Juan storms are continental. The implications for seeding are discussed.

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Paul L. Smith

Abstract

Comments are made on opportunity recognition, treatment, and evaluation aspects of the implementation and testing of seeding concepts. The main topics include experimental design, experimental units, delivery and dispersion of seeding agents, and statistical evaluation procedures.

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Abraham Gagin

Abstract

In static-mode seeding two assumptions are usually made: a deficiency in concentrations of natural ice crystals is the reason for delay, or even failure, of precipitation formation in certain cloud conditions; and, moderate increases in ice crystal concentrations, obtained by glaciogenic seeding of such clouds, will result in rainfall enhancement either by making the already existing process of rain formation more effective or by inducing precipitation formation in clouds that otherwise would not have precipitated naturally.

The basic assumption behind seeding for dynamic effects is that increased cloud buoyancy, achieved through conversion of supercooled water to ice by seeding, will cause an increase in cloud depth, which in turn will result in stronger rainfall intensities, areas and durations.

These basic assumptions are examined in terms of physical and statistical analyses of data from Israeli II (a static-mode seeding project) and FACE-2 (a dynamic-mode seeding project).

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Arthur L. Rangno

Abstract

Some of the complexities of clouds and precipitation that have been encountered in field projects are reviewed. These complexities highlight areas of cloud microstructure and precipitation development that need to be better understood before adequate conceptual or numerical models of orographic cloud seeding can be developed. Some concerns about cloud sampling with regard to the evolutionary behavior of supercooled clouds from water to ice are also discussed.

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Lewis O. Grant

Abstract

The hypothesis used for the initial Climax wintertime cloud seeding experiment and for subsequent Climax replication-type experiments are described and briefly discussed. More recent physical studies of Colorado orographic clouds and seeding hypotheses are briefly summarized. These later tests and studies of orographic cloud seeding hypotheses emphasized direct and remotely sensed cloud and precipitation measurements utilizing instrumentation and modeling capabilities not available during the Climax statistical experiments. The conclusions suggested from the hypothesis testing, considering both the statistical experiments and the later physical studies, are summarized.

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William A. Cooper

Abstract

Selected concentrations of ice crystal concentrations attributable to nucleation are compiled and summarized. The variability in the observations is discussed, and some conclusions related to natural precipitation formation and to seedability are discussed.

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J. Michael Fritsch

Abstract

Modification of mesoscale convective weather systems through ice-phase seeding is briefly reviewed. a simple mathematical framework for estimating the likely mesoscale response to convective cloud modification is presented, and previous mesoscale modification hypotheses are discussed in the context of this mathematical framework. Some basic differences between cloud-scale and mesoscale modification hypotheses are also discussed. Numerical model experiments to test the mesoscale sensitivity of convective weather systems are reviewed, and several focal points for identifying mesoscale modification potential are presented.

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Roscoe R. Braham, Jr.

Abstract

Schaefer's 1946 cloud seeding experiment initiated a quest for weather modification techniques. Progress has been slow; but there are several reasons for believing that useful precipitation augmentation may be possible.

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John A. Flueck

Abstract

Proper field experimentation in precipitation augmentation, or virtually any other topic, is not an easy task. Some general research considerations, i.e., the objectives of research, the quest for believability, and the two principal types of field studies, are discussed. The anatomy and stages of life of an experiment are presented, and the three levels or classes of an experiment (i.e., preliminary, exploratory, and confirmatory) are depicted. A number of prescriptions for improved experimentation are offered in regard to conceptual models, treatment design, treatment selection and allocation, treatment effect models, and analyses for treatment effects. Lastly, a few comments are appended on the role of statisticians in quality field research efforts.

When the well's dry, we know the worth of water. Ben Franklin, 1758 Poor Richard's Almanack

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Harold D. Orville

Abstract

This paper reviews the field experiments and theoretical studies relating to the ice-phase seeding of summer convective clouds for the purpose of affecting their dynamic evolution and precipitation production. The review reports on studies of both tropical and extratropical clouds, citing the physical evidence for microphysical and dynamic changes and reviewing the numerical modeling efforts in support of the field experiments. The statistical evidence is also reviewed. A critique and discussion of the results is given, and many questions related to these dynamic-mode seeding hypotheses are posed. Strategies for attacking the many unsolved problems are presented briefly.

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