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Mark A. Lander and Charles P. Guard

Abstract

This paper is an annual summary of the western North Pacific, north Indian Ocean, and Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclones of 1997. (Note: for the Southern Hemisphere, the 1997 annual total is accrued from July 1996 to June 1997.) The tropical cyclone statistics presented are derived from records at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), Guam. Although the text focuses on the tropical cyclones that occurred in the western North Pacific during 1997, it also includes brief summaries of the tropical cyclones in the north Indian Ocean, south Indian Ocean, and the South Pacific. The 38 tropical cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere during 1997 were a record high, and the 23 typhoons in the western North Pacific were second only to the 24 typhoons there in 1971. In the north Indian Ocean, the annual number of tropical cyclones was below normal. The large-scale circulation anomalies, and many aspects of the tropical cyclone distribution, were those typical of a major El Niño. Highlights of the 1997 tropical cyclone distribution in the western North Pacific also include an unprecedented number of very intense tropical cyclones—11 became supertyphoons—and a large eastward displacement of the genesis locations.

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Lixion A. Avila and John L. Guiney

Abstract

The 1998 eastern North Pacific hurricane season is reviewed. There were 15 tropical cyclones, consisting of nine hurricanes, four tropical storms, and two tropical depressions. During 1998, two tropical cyclones made landfall; Hurricane Isis made two landfalls in Mexico while Tropical Depression Javier dissipated near Cabo Corrientes, Mexico.

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Miles B. Lawrence

Abstract

The hurricane season of the eastern North Pacific basin is summarized and individual tropical cyclones are described. The number of tropical cyclones was near normal. Hurricane Pauline’s rainfall flooding killed more than 200 people in the Acapulco, Mexico, area. Linda became the strongest hurricane on record in this basin with 160-kt 1-min winds.

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Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The 1997 Atlantic hurricane season is summarized and the year’s tropical storms, hurricanes, and one subtropical storm are described. The tropical cyclones were relatively few in number, short lived, and weak compared to long-term climatology. Most systems originated outside the deep Tropics. Hurricane Danny was the only system to make landfall. It produced rainfall totals to near 1 m in southern Alabama and is blamed for five deaths. Hurricane Erika was responsible for the season’s two other fatalities, in the coastal waters of Puerto Rico.

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Mark A. Lander, Eric J. Trehubenko, and Charles P. Guard

Abstract

This paper is an annual summary of the Eastern Hemisphere tropical cyclones of 1996. The tropical cyclone statistics presented derive from records at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, Guam. Although the text focuses on the tropical cyclones that occurred in the western North Pacific during 1996, it also includes brief summaries of the tropical cyclones in the north Indian Ocean, south Indian Ocean, and the South Pacific. Overall, 1996 was an active year in the Eastern Hemisphere: the 28 tropical cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere were near normal, while the number of tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific and in the North Indian Ocean was above normal. The large-scale circulation anomalies typical of a cold phase (La Niña) of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) continued until late in the year when strong equatorial westerly winds pushed eastward. In retrospect, the return of near-normal mean monthly monsoonal flow to the tropical Pacific during November and December of 1996—punctuated by two intense equatorial westerly wind bursts—may have signaled the onset of the strong 1997 El Niño.

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Richard J. Pasch and Lixion A. Avila

Abstract

A summary of the 1996 Atlantic hurricane season is given, and the individual tropical storms and hurricanes are described. This was the second active year in a row with a large number of intense hurricanes. Hurricane Fran, which hit the coast of North Carolina, was the strongest system to make landfall, and also the most destructive.

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Max Mayfield and Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The National Hurricane Center (a component of the Tropical Prediction Center) tracked nine tropical storms, five of which became hurricanes, during the 1996 eastern North Pacific hurricane season. Five tropical storms or hurricanes made landfall in Mexico. An overview of the 1996 hurricane season is presented.

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M. B. Lawrence, B. M. Mayfield, L. A. Avila, R. J. Pasch, and E. N. Rappaport

Abstract

The 1995 Atlantic hurricane season is described. There were eight tropical storms and 11 hurricanes for a total of 19 named tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin during 1995. This is the second-largest number of tropical storms and hurricanes in over 100 years of records. Thirteen named tropical cyclones affected land.

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Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, and Jiann-Gwo Jiing

Abstract

Totals of 70 and 63 tropical waves (also known as African or easterly waves) were counted in the Atlantic basin during the 1994 and 1995 hurricane seasons. These waves led to the formation of 9 of the 12 total number of tropical cyclones in 1994 and 19 of the 21 total number of tropical cyclones in 1995. Tropical waves contributed to the formation of 75% of the eastern Pacific tropical cyclones in 1994 and 73% in 1995. Upper- and lower-level prevailing wind patterns observed during the below-normal season of 1994 and the very active one of 1995 are discussed. Tropical wave characteristics between the two years are compared.

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Edward N. Rappaport, Lixion A. Avila, Miles B. Lawrence, Max Mayfield, and Richard J. Pasch

Abstract

The 1995 eastern North Pacific hurricane season is reviewed. The activity comprised 11 tropical cyclones, consisting of seven hurricanes, three tropical storms, and one tropical depression. Hurricane Ismael caused a large loss of life in the southern Gulf of California.

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