Browse

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 201 items for :

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Pablo Ortega
,
Edward W. Blockley
,
Morten Køltzow
,
François Massonnet
,
Irina Sandu
,
Gunilla Svensson
,
Juan C. Acosta Navarro
,
Gabriele Arduini
,
Lauriane Batté
,
Eric Bazile
,
Matthieu Chevallier
,
Rubén Cruz-García
,
Jonathan J. Day
,
Thierry Fichefet
,
Daniela Flocco
,
Mukesh Gupta
,
Kerstin Hartung
,
Ed Hawkins
,
Claudia Hinrichs
,
Linus Magnusson
,
Eduardo Moreno-Chamarro
,
Sergio Pérez-Montero
,
Leandro Ponsoni
,
Tido Semmler
,
Doug Smith
,
Jean Sterlin
,
Michael Tjernström
,
Ilona Välisuo
, and
Thomas Jung

Abstract

The Arctic environment is changing, increasing the vulnerability of local communities and ecosystems, and impacting its socio-economic landscape. In this context, weather and climate prediction systems can be powerful tools to support strategic planning and decision-making at different time horizons. This article presents several success stories from the H2020 project APPLICATE on how to advance Arctic weather and seasonal climate prediction, synthesizing the key lessons learned throughout the project and providing recommendations for future model and forecast system development.

Open access
Scotney D. Evans
,
Kenneth Broad
,
Alberto Cairo
,
Sharanya J. Majumdar
,
Brian D. McNoldy
,
Barbara Millet
, and
Leigh Rauk

Abstract

The accurate interpretation of hurricane risk graphics is expected to benefit public decision-making. To investigate public interpretation and suggest improvements to graphical designs, an interdisciplinary, mixed-methods approach is being undertaken. Drawing on a series of focus groups with Miami residents that focused on understanding interpretations of the National Hurricane Center’s (NHC) track forecast cone or “Cone of Uncertainty,” we developed an online survey targeting a much larger sample of Florida residents (n = 2,847). The findings from this survey are the primary focus of this short article. We attempt to answer three questions: 1) What are the most frequent and trusted sources of information that Florida residents use when they learn that a hurricane is coming their way? 2) How accurately are Florida residents able to interpret risk based on the NHC Cone of Uncertainty graphic? 3) What is the relationship, if any, between the number of correct interpretations and income, age, education, housing location, housing type, or “most trusted” sources of information? Unlike previous public surveys that focused more on evacuation decisions, forecast usage, and perception of hurricane risk, our approach specifically pays attention to the details of design elements of the forecast graphics with the long-term goal of minimizing misinterpretation of future graphics. Our analysis suggests that many residents have difficulty interpreting several aspects, suggesting a rethink on how to graphically communicate aspects such as uncertainty, the size of the storm, areas of likely damage, watches and warnings, and wind intensity categories. Graphical communication strategies need to be revised to better support the different ways in which people understand forecast products, and these strategies should be tested for validity in real world settings.

Full access
Huiling Ouyang
,
Xu Tang
,
Rajesh Kumar
,
Renhe Zhang
,
Guy Brasseur
,
Ben Churchill
,
Mozaharul Alam
,
Haidong Kan
,
Hong Liao
,
Tong Zhu
,
Emily Ying Yang Chan
,
Ranjeet Sokhi
,
Jiacan Yuan
,
Alexander Baklanov
,
Jianmin Chen
, and
Maria Katherina Patdu

Abstract

Air pollution is estimated to contribute to approximately 7 million premature deaths, of which around 4.5 million deaths are linked to ambient (outdoor) air pollution. The deaths attributed to air pollution rank the highest in the Asian region, and thus, the implementation of the stricter World Health Organization (WHO) Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs) released on 22 September 2021 will generate the greatest health benefits in the Asian region. Here we present some key messages and recommendations at national, regional, and global levels to promote the strategies for implementation of the ambitious WHO 2021 AQGs in the Asian region.

Full access
Amy McGovern
,
Ann Bostrom
,
Phillip Davis
,
Julie L. Demuth
,
Imme Ebert-Uphoff
,
Ruoying He
,
Jason Hickey
,
David John Gagne II
,
Nathan Snook
,
Jebb Q. Stewart
,
Christopher Thorncroft
,
Philippe Tissot
, and
John K. Williams

Abstract

We introduce the National Science Foundation (NSF) AI Institute for Research on Trustworthy AI in Weather, Climate, and Coastal Oceanography (AI2ES). This AI institute was funded in 2020 as part of a new initiative from the NSF to advance foundational AI research across a wide variety of domains. To date AI2ES is the only NSF AI institute focusing on environmental science applications. Our institute focuses on developing trustworthy AI methods for weather, climate, and coastal hazards. The AI methods will revolutionize our understanding and prediction of high-impact atmospheric and ocean science phenomena and will be utilized by diverse, professional user groups to reduce risks to society. In addition, we are creating novel educational paths, including a new degree program at a community college serving underrepresented minorities, to improve workforce diversity for both AI and environmental science.

Full access
William E. Foust

Abstract

Weather, climate, and other Earth system models are growing in complexity as computing resources and technologies continue to evolve with time. Thus, models are and will remain a vital tool for scientific research. Exposure and education on the workings of such models can generate interest toward atmospheric science, and it can increase scientific literacy among the general public. Additionally, studies have suggested that early exposure to these models can affect the career trajectory of students. However, gaining exposure and experience remains difficult outside of internships, research settings, and other professional endeavors. Some of these barriers can include hardware and computing costs, curriculum structure, and access to instructors. As a means of addressing these barriers, the goal of this work is to utilize low-cost hardware and abstract away some of the complexities of running a numerical weather model without sacrificing fidelity. The approach is to create a graphical user interface (GUI) where users can quickly configure the model, run it, and analyze the output without knowledge of model configuration, system architecture, or navigation via a command line interface. The Pi-WRF application is packaged such that users can download and run the model within a matter of minutes. The application is designed to promote informal learning through hands-on experience. It is targeted toward lower secondary level students, but it can scale across grade levels, and it can be adapted for general audiences.

Full access
Thomas A. Green Jr.
,
Daniel Leins
,
Gary M. Lackmann
,
James Morrow
, and
Jonathan Blaes

Abstract

Nearly 100 North Carolina State University (NCSU) students have participated in a unique, highly structured internship course conducted by the National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Raleigh, North Carolina. Here, we explore the impact that this course has had on their professional development and career trajectories. As of this writing, the course has been running for 17 years; this paper provides an update on how the course has changed over time, and information concerning participant outcomes. Changes include a reduction in class size to allow for more individualized mentoring, and the addition of experiences outside of the WFO. The course serves as a compelling selling point in student recruiting for the Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences (MEAS), and participation also helps to ensure that the curriculum is adequately preparing students for positions in the NWS. The NWS benefits from a pool of potential employees that will require less spin-up time if hired; additionally, some NCSU graduates have participated in similar student volunteer programs at their respective offices once hired.

Full access
Leslie A. Duram

Abstract

Previous research indicates the importance of interdisciplinary approaches when teaching about climate change. Specifically, social science perspectives allow students to understand the policy, economic, cultural, and personal influences that impact environmental change. This article describes one such college course that employed active-learning techniques. Course topics included community resilience, environmental education, historical knowledge timeline, climate justice, social vulnerability, youth action, science communication, hope versus despair, misinformation, and climate refugees. To unify these concepts, engaging activities were developed that specifically address relevant individual, local, state, national, and international climate resilience themes. Students assessed their personal climate footprint, explored social/cultural influences, wrote policy requests to relevant local/state government officials, studied national policy options, and learned about previous global initiatives. The course culminated in a mock global climate summit, which was modeled on a Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This final activity required each student to prepare a policy report and represent a nation in negotiating a multilateral climate agreement. It is accepted that climate change education must include physical data on the impacts of anthropogenic emissions. It is also essential that students appreciate the interdisciplinary nature of climate adaptations, become hopeful about addressing change, and gain skills necessary to engage as informed climate citizens.

Full access
Brian A. Colle
,
Rosemary Auld
,
Kenneth Johnson
,
Christine O’Connell
,
Temis G. Taylor
, and
Joshua Rice

Abstract

It is challenging to communicate uncertainty for high-impact weather events to the public and decision-makers. As a result, there is an increased emphasis and training within the National Weather Service (NWS) for “impact-based decision support.” A Collaborative Science, Technology, And Research (CSTAR) project led by Stony Brook University (SBU) in collaboration with the Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science, several NWS forecast offices, and NWS operational centers held two workshops at SBU on effective forecast communication of probabilistic information for high-impact weather. Trainers in two 1.5-day workshops helped 15–20 forecasters learn to distill their messages, engage audiences, and more effectively communicate risk and uncertainty to decision-makers, media, and the general public. The novel aspect of the first workshop focused on using improvisational techniques to connect with audiences along with exercises to improve communication skills using short, clear, conversational statements. The same forecasters participated in the second workshop, which focused on matching messages to intended audiences and stakeholder interaction. Using a recent high-impact weather event, representatives in emergency management, TV media, departments of transportation, and emergency services provided feedback on the forecaster oral presentations (2–3 min) and a visual slide. This article describes our innovative workshop approach, illustrates some of the techniques used, and highlights participant feedback.

Full access
Clay S. Tucker
,
Jill C. Trepanier
,
Pamela B. Blanchard
,
Ed Bush
,
James W. Jordan
,
Mark J. Schafer
, and
John Andrew Nyman

Abstract

Environmental education is key in solving environmental problems and for producing a future workforce capable of solving issues of climate change. Over the last two decades, the Coastal Roots Program at Louisiana State University (LSU) has reached more than 26,676 K–12 students in Louisiana to teach them environmental science and has brought them to restoration sites to plant 194,336 school-grown trees and grasses. The codirectors of Coastal Roots are continually searching for opportunities to enrich the experience of teachers and students in connecting school subjects, Coastal Roots, and stewardship. In school year 2018/19, students in five local schools entered a pilot program to learn how tree-ring science informs environmental science broadly. During their scheduled restoration planting trips, students were asked to collect the following tree data: tree cores, tree height, tree diameter, tree species, and global positioning system location points. Data were given to scientists at LSU for preliminary analysis, and graphical representation of the data were shown to the students for their interpretation. Results from this program indicate that bringing students into the field and teaching them a new scientific skill improved their understanding of environmental science and their role in coastal restoration, and tree-ring data showed significant correlations to various climate parameters in Louisiana. Additionally, we find that bringing this knowledge to teachers allows the knowledge to spread for multiple generations of students. Here we present tree-ring data from this project, lessons learned during the pilot program, advantages to student-based citizen science, and recommendations for similar programs.

Full access
Steven Caluwaerts
,
Sara Top
,
Thomas Vergauwen
,
Guy Wauters
,
Koen De Ridder
,
Rafiq Hamdi
,
Bart Mesuere
,
Bert Van Schaeybroeck
,
Hendrik Wouters
, and
Piet Termonia

Abstract

Today, the vast majority of meteorological data are collected in open, rural environments to comply with the standards set by the World Meteorological Organization. However, these traditional networks lack local information that would be of immense value, for example, for studying urban microclimates, evaluating climate adaptation measures, or improving high-resolution numerical weather predictions. Therefore, an urgent need exists for reliable meteorological data in other environments (e.g., cities, lakes, forests) to complement these conventional networks. At present, however, high-accuracy initiatives tend to be limited in space and/or time as a result of the substantial budgetary requirements faced by research teams and operational services. We present a novel approach for addressing the existing observational gaps based on an intense collaboration with high schools. This methodology resulted in the establishment of a regionwide climate monitoring network of 59 accurate weather stations in a wide variety of locations across northern Belgium. The project is also of large societal relevance as it bridges the gap between the youth and atmospheric science. To guarantee a sustainable and mutually valuable collaboration, the schools and their students are involved at all stages, ranging from proposing measurement locations, building the weather stations, and even data analysis. We illustrate how the approach received overwhelming enthusiasm from high schools and students and resulted in a high-accuracy monitoring network with unique locations offering novel insights.

Full access