Browse

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 55 items for :

  • Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM): Science and Applications x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Catherine M. Naud, James F. Booth, Matthew Lebsock, and Mircea Grecu

Abstract

Using cyclone-centered compositing and a database of extratropical-cyclone locations, the distribution of precipitation frequency and rate in oceanic extratropical cyclones is analyzed using satellite-derived datasets. The distribution of precipitation rates retrieved using two new datasets, the Global Precipitation Measurement radar–microwave radiometer combined product (GPM-CMB) and the Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM product (IMERG), is compared with CloudSat, and the differences are discussed. For reference, the composites of AMSR-E, GPCP, and two reanalyses are also examined. Cyclone-centered precipitation rates are found to be the largest with the IMERG and CloudSat datasets and lowest with GPM-CMB. A series of tests is conducted to determine the roles of swath width, swath location, sampling frequency, season, and epoch. In all cases, these effects are less than ~0.14 mm h−1 at 50-km resolution. Larger differences in the composites are related to retrieval biases, such as ground-clutter contamination in GPM-CMB and radar saturation in CloudSat. Overall the IMERG product reports precipitation more often, with larger precipitation rates at the center of the cyclones, in conditions of high precipitable water (PW). The CloudSat product tends to report more precipitation in conditions of dry or moderate PW. The GPM-CMB product tends to systematically report lower precipitation rates than the other two datasets. This intercomparison provides 1) modelers with an observational uncertainty and range (0.21–0.36 mm h−1 near the cyclone centers) when using composites of precipitation for model evaluation and 2) retrieval-algorithm developers with a categorical analysis of the sensitivity of the products to PW.

Full access
Toshio Iguchi, Nozomi Kawamoto, and Riko Oki

Abstract

Detection of ice precipitation is one of the objectives in the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. The dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) can provide precipitation echoes at two different frequencies, which may enable differentiating solid precipitation echoes from liquid precipitation echoes. A simple algorithm that flags the pixels that contain intense ice precipitation above the height of C is implemented in version 5 of the DPR products. In the inner swath of DPR measurements in which both Ku- and Ka-band radar echoes are available, the measured dual-frequency ratio () together with the measured radar reflectivity factor is used to judge the existence of intense ice precipitation. Comparisons of the flagged pixels with surface measurements show that the algorithm correctly identifies relatively intense ice precipitation regions. The global distribution of the flagged pixels indicates an interesting difference between land and ocean, in particular in the distribution of ice precipitation that reaches the surface. The flag is also expected to be useful for improving precipitation retrieval algorithms by microwave radiometers.

Open access
Veljko Petković, Christian D. Kummerow, David L. Randel, Jeffrey R. Pierce, and John K. Kodros

Abstract

Prominent achievements made in addressing global precipitation using satellite passive microwave retrievals are often overshadowed by their performance at finer spatial and temporal scales, where large variability in cloud morphology poses an obstacle for accurate precipitation measurements. This is especially true over land, with precipitation estimates being based on an observed mean relationship between high-frequency (e.g., 89 GHz) brightness temperature depression (i.e., the ice-scattering signature) and surface precipitation rate. This indirect relationship between the observed (brightness temperatures) and state (precipitation) vectors often leads to inaccurate estimates, with more pronounced biases (e.g., −30% over the United States) observed during extreme events. This study seeks to mitigate these errors by employing previously established relationships between cloud structures and large-scale environments such as CAPE, wind shear, humidity distribution, and aerosol concentrations to form a stronger relationship between precipitation and the scattering signal. The GPM passive microwave operational precipitation retrieval (GPROF) for the GMI sensor is modified to offer additional information on atmospheric conditions to its Bayesian-based algorithm. The modified algorithm is allowed to use the large-scale environment to filter out a priori states that do not match the general synoptic condition relevant to the observation and thus reduces the difference between the assumed and observed variability in the ice-to-rain ratio. Using the ground Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) network over the United States, the results demonstrate outstanding potential in improving the accuracy of heavy precipitation over land. It is found that individual synoptic parameters can remove 20%–30% of existing bias and up to 50% when combined, while preserving the overall performance of the algorithm.

Full access
Liao-Fan Lin, Ardeshir M. Ebtehaj, Alejandro N. Flores, Satish Bastola, and Rafael L. Bras

Abstract

This paper presents a framework that enables simultaneous assimilation of satellite precipitation and soil moisture observations into the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Noah land surface model through variational approaches. The authors tested the framework by assimilating precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and soil moisture data from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The results show that assimilation of both TRMM and SMOS data can effectively improve the forecast skills of precipitation, top 10-cm soil moisture, and 2-m temperature and specific humidity. Within a 2-day time window, impacts of precipitation data assimilation on the forecasts remain relatively constant for forecast lead times greater than 6 h, while the influence of soil moisture data assimilation increases with lead time. The study also demonstrates that the forecast skill of precipitation, soil moisture, and near-surface temperature and humidity are further improved when both the TRMM and SMOS data are assimilated. In particular, the combined data assimilation reduces the prediction biases and root-mean-square errors, respectively, by 57% and 6% (for precipitation); 73% and 27% (for soil moisture); 17% and 9% (for 2-m temperature); and 33% and 11% (for 2-m specific humidity).

Full access
Ali Tokay, Leo Pio D’Adderio, Federico Porcù, David B. Wolff, and Walter A. Petersen

Abstract

A network of seven two-dimensional video disdrometers (2DVD), which were operated during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) in northern Oklahoma, are employed to investigate the spatial variability of raindrop size distribution (DSD) within the footprint of the dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) on board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite. One-minute 2DVD DSD observations were interpolated uniformly to 13 points distributed within a nearly circular DPR footprint through an inverse distance weighting method. The presence of deep continental showers was a unique feature of the dataset resulting in a higher mean rain rate R with respect to previous studies. As a measure of spatial variability for the interpolated data, a three-parameter exponential function was applied to paired correlations of three parameters of normalized gamma DSD, R, reflectivity, and attenuation at Ka- and Ku-band frequencies of DPR (Z_Ka, Z_Ku, k_Ka, and k_Ku, respectively). The symmetry of the interpolated sites allowed quantifying the directional differences in correlations at the same distance. The correlation distances d 0 of R, k_Ka, and k_Ku were approximately 10 km and were not sensitive to the choice of four rain thresholds used in this study. The d 0 of Z_Ku, on the other hand, ranged from 29 to 20 km between different rain thresholds. The coefficient of variation (CV) remained less than 0.5 for most of the samples for a given physical parameter, but a CV of greater than 1.0 was also observed in noticeable samples, especially for the shape parameter and Z_Ku.

Full access
Robert A. Houze Jr., Lynn A. McMurdie, Walter A. Petersen, Mathew R. Schwaller, William Baccus, Jessica D. Lundquist, Clifford F. Mass, Bart Nijssen, Steven A. Rutledge, David R. Hudak, Simone Tanelli, Gerald G. Mace, Michael R. Poellot, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Angela K. Rowe, Jennifer C. DeHart, Luke E. Madaus, Hannah C. Barnes, and V. Chandrasekar

Abstract

The Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) took place during the 2015/16 fall–winter season in the vicinity of the mountainous Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The goals of OLYMPEX were to provide physical and hydrologic ground validation for the U.S.–Japan Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite mission and, more specifically, to study how precipitation in Pacific frontal systems is modified by passage over coastal mountains. Four transportable scanning dual-polarization Doppler radars of various wavelengths were installed. Surface stations were placed at various altitudes to measure precipitation rates, particle size distributions, and fall velocities. Autonomous recording cameras monitored and recorded snow accumulation. Four research aircraft supplied by NASA investigated precipitation processes and snow cover, and supplemental rawinsondes and dropsondes were deployed during precipitation events. Numerous Pacific frontal systems were sampled, including several reaching “atmospheric river” status, warm- and cold-frontal systems, and postfrontal convection.

Open access
Xiang Ni, Chuntao Liu, Daniel J. Cecil, and Qinghong Zhang

Abstract

In previous studies, remote sensing properties of hailstorms have been discussed using various spaceborne sensors. Relationships between hail occurrence and strong passive microwave brightness temperature depressions have been established. Using a 16-yr precipitation-feature database derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, the performance of the TRMM Precipitation Radar and TRMM Microwave Imager is further investigated for hail detection. Detection criteria for hail larger than 19 mm are separately developed from Ku-band radar reflectivity and microwave brightness temperature properties of precipitation features that are collocated with surface hail reports over the southeastern and south-central United States. A threshold of 44 dBZ at −22°C is found to have the highest critical success index and Heidke skill score. The threshold of 230 K at 37 GHz yields the best scores among passive microwave properties. Using these two thresholds, global distributions of possible hail events are generated over 65°S–65°N using two years of observations from the Global Precipitation Measurement Core Observatory satellite. Differences in the derived hail geographical distributions are found between radar and passive microwave methods over tropical South America, the “Maritime Continent,” west-central Africa, Argentina, and South Africa. These discrepancies result from different vertical structures of the maximum radar reflectivity profiles over these regions relative to the southeastern and south-central United States, where the thresholds were established. Those differences generally led to overestimates in the tropics from the passive microwave methods, relative to the radar-based methods.

Open access
Sara Q. Zhang, T. Matsui, S. Cheung, M. Zupanski, and C. Peters-Lidard

Abstract

This work assimilates multisensor precipitation-sensitive microwave radiance observations into a storm-scale NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) Model simulation of the West African monsoon. The analysis consists of a full description of the atmospheric states and a realistic cloud and precipitation distribution that is consistent with the observed dynamic and physical features. The analysis shows an improved representation of monsoon precipitation and its interaction with dynamics over West Africa. Most significantly, assimilation of precipitation-affected microwave radiance has a positive impact on the distribution of precipitation intensity and also modulates the propagation of cloud precipitation systems associated with the African easterly jet. Using an ensemble-based assimilation technique that allows state-dependent forecast error covariance among dynamical and microphysical variables, this work shows that the assimilation of precipitation-sensitive microwave radiances over the West African monsoon rainband enables initialization of storms. These storms show the characteristics of continental tropical convection that enhance the connection between tropical waves and organized convection systems.

Full access
H. Dong and X. Zou

Abstract

The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) plays an important role in monitoring global precipitation. In this study, an along-track striping noise is found in GMI observations of brightness temperatures for the two highest-frequency channels—12 and 13—with their central frequencies centered at 183.31 GHz. These two channels are designed for sounding the water vapor in the middle and upper troposphere. The pitch maneuver data of deep space confirmed an existence of striping noise in channels 12 and 13. A striping noise mitigation method is used for extracting the striping noise from the earth scene or deep space measurements of brightness temperatures by combining the principle component analysis (PCA) with the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method. A power spectrum density analysis indicated that the frequency of striping noise ranges between 0.06 and 0.533 s−1, where the right bound of 0.533 s−1 of frequency is exactly the inverse of the time (i.e., 1.875 s) it takes for the GMI to complete one conical scan line. The magnitude of striping noise in the brightness temperature observations of GMI channels 12 and 13 is about ±0.3 K. It is shown that after striping noise mitigation, the observation minus model simulation (O − B) distributions of both the earth scene and deep space brightness temperatures show no visible striping features.

Full access
Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Walter A. Petersen, Wesley Berg, Chris Kidd, Erich F. Stocker, Dalia B. Kirschbaum, Ramesh Kakar, Scott A. Braun, George J. Huffman, Toshio Iguchi, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, Robert Meneghini, Riko Oki, William S. Olson, Yukari N. Takayabu, Kinji Furukawa, and Thomas Wilheit

Abstract

Precipitation is a key source of freshwater; therefore, observing global patterns of precipitation and its intensity is important for science, society, and understanding our planet in a changing climate. In 2014, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory (CO) spacecraft. The GPM CO carries the most advanced precipitation sensors currently in space including a dual-frequency precipitation radar provided by JAXA for measuring the three-dimensional structures of precipitation and a well-calibrated, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer that provides wide-swath precipitation data. The GPM CO was designed to measure rain rates from 0.2 to 110.0 mm h−1 and to detect moderate to intense snow events. The GPM CO serves as a reference for unifying the data from a constellation of partner satellites to provide next-generation, merged precipitation estimates globally and with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Through improved measurements of rain and snow, precipitation data from GPM provides new information such as details on precipitation structure and intensity; observations of hurricanes and typhoons as they transition from the tropics to the midlatitudes; data to advance near-real-time hazard assessment for floods, landslides, and droughts; inputs to improve weather and climate models; and insights into agricultural productivity, famine, and public health. Since launch, GPM teams have calibrated satellite instruments, refined precipitation retrieval algorithms, expanded science investigations, and processed and disseminated precipitation data for a range of applications. The current status of GPM, its ongoing science, and its future plans are presented.

Full access