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Pichaya Lertvilai, Paul L.D. Roberts, and Jules S. Jaffe

Abstract

The development of a low-cost Video Velocimeter (VIV) to estimate underwater bulk flow velocity is described. The instrument utilizes a simplified particle image correlation technique to reconstruct an average flow velocity vector from video recordings of ambient particles. The VIV uses a single camera with a set of mirrors that splits the view into two stereoscopic views, allowing estimation of the flow velocity vector. The VIV was validated in a controlled flume using ambient seawater, and subsequently field tested together with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter with both mounted close to the coastal seafloor. When used in nonturbulent flow, the instrument can estimate mean flow velocity parallel to the front face of the instrument with root-mean-squared errors of the main flow within 10% of the ±20 cm s−1 measurement range when compared to an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). The predominant feature of the VIV is that it is a cost-effective method to estimate flow velocity in complex benthic habitats where velocity parallel to the sea floor is of interest.

Open access
Nawal Husnoo, Timothy Darlington, Sebastián Torres, and David Warde

Abstract

In this work, we present a new quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) quality-control (QC) algorithm for the U.K. weather radar network. The real-time adaptive algorithm uses a neural network (NN) to select data from the lowest useable elevation scan to optimize the combined performance of two other radar data correction algorithms: ground-clutter mitigation [using Clutter Environment Analysis using Adaptive Processing (CLEAN-AP)] and vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) correction. The NN is trained using 3D tiles of observed uncontaminated weather signals that are systematically combined with ground-clutter signals collected under dry weather conditions. This approach provides a way to simulate radar signals with a wide range of clutter contamination conditions and with realistic spatial structures while providing the uncontaminated “truth” with respect to which the performance of the QC algorithm can be measured. An evaluation of QPE products obtained with the proposed QC algorithm demonstrates superior performance as compared to those obtained with the QC algorithm currently used in operations. Similar improvements are also illustrated using radar observations from two periods of prolonged precipitation, showing a better balance between overestimation errors from using clutter-contaminated low-elevation radar data and VPR-induced errors from using high-elevation radar data.

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Timothy J. Wagner and Ralph A. Petersen

Abstract

Routine in situ observations of the atmosphere taken in flight by commercial aircraft provide atmospheric profiles with greater temporal density and, in many parts of the country, at more locations than the operational radiosonde network. Thousands of daily temperature and wind observations are provided by largely complementary systems, the Airborne Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) and the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR). All TAMDAR aircraft also measure relative humidity while a subset of AMDAR aircraft are equipped with the Water Vapor Sensing System (WVSS) measure specific humidity. One year of AMDAR/WVSS and TAMDAR observations are evaluated against operational National Weather Service (NWS) radiosondes to characterize the performance of these systems in similar environments. For all observed variables, AMDAR reports showed both smaller average differences and less random differences with respect to radiosondes than the corresponding TAMDAR observations. Observed differences were not necessarily consistent with known radiosonde biases. Since the systems measure different humidity variables, moisture is evaluated in both specific and relative humidity using both aircraft and radiosonde temperatures to derive corresponding moisture variables. Derived moisture performance is improved when aircraft-based temperatures are corrected prior to conversion. AMDAR observations also show greater consistency between different aircraft than TAMDAR observations do. The small variability in coincident WVSS humidity observations indicates that they may prove more reliable than humidity observations from NWS radiosondes.

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Tara Howatt, Stephanie Waterman, and Tetjana Ross

Abstract

Turbulence plays a key role in many oceanic processes, but a shortage of turbulence observations impedes its exploration. Parameterizations of turbulence applied to readily available CTD data can be useful in expanding our understanding of the space–time variability of turbulence. Typically tested and applied to shipboard data, these parameterizations have not been rigorously tested on data collected by underwater gliders, which show potential to observe turbulence in conditions that ships cannot. Using data from a 10-day glider survey in a coastal shelf environment, we compare estimates of turbulent dissipation from the finescale parameterization and Thorpe scale method to those estimated from microstructure observations collected on the same glider platform. We find that the finescale parameterization captures the magnitude and statistical distribution of dissipation, but cannot resolve spatiotemporal features in this relatively shallow water depth. In contrast, the Thorpe scale method more successfully characterizes the spatiotemporal distribution of turbulence; however, the magnitude of dissipation is overestimated, largely due to limitations on the detectable density overturn size imposed by the typical glider CTD sampling frequency of 0.5 Hz and CTD noise. Despite these limitations, turbulence parameterizations provide a viable opportunity to use CTD data collected by the multitude of gliders sampling the ocean to develop greater insight into the space–time variability of ocean turbulence and the role of turbulence in oceanic processes.

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Aart Overeem, Hylke de Vries, Hassan Al Sakka, Remko Uijlenhoet, and Hidde Leijnse

Abstract

The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) operates two operational dual-polarization C-band weather radars providing 2D radar rainfall products. Attenuation can result in severe underestimation of rainfall amounts, particularly in convective situations that are known to have high impact on society. To improve the radar-based precipitation estimates, two attenuation correction methods are evaluated and compared: 1) modified Kraemer (MK) method, i.e., Hitschfeld–Bordan where parameters of the power-law Z hk h relation are adjusted such that reflectivities in the entire dataset do not exceed 59 dBZ h and attenuation correction is limited to 10 dB; and 2) using two-way path-integrated attenuation computed from the dual-polarization moment specific differential phase K dp (Kdp method). In both cases the open-source Python library wradlib is employed for the actual attenuation correction. A radar voxel only contributes to the computed path-integrated attenuation if its height is below the forecasted freezing-level height from the numerical weather prediction model HARMONIE-AROME. The methods are effective in improving hourly and daily quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), where the Kdp method performs best. The verification against rain gauge data shows that the underestimation diminishes from 55% to 37% for hourly rainfall for the Kdp method when the gauge indicates more than 10 mm of rain in that hour. The improvement for the MK method is less pronounced, with a resulting underestimation of 40%. The stability of the MK method holds a promise for application to data archives from single-polarization radars.

Open access
Naoki Hirose, Tianran Liu, Katsumi Takayama, Katsuto Uehara, Takeshi Taneda, and Young Ho Kim

Abstract

This study clarifies the necessity of an extraordinary large coefficient of vertical viscosity for dynamical ocean modeling in a shallow and narrow strait with complex bathymetry. Sensitivity experiments and objective analyses imply that background momentum viscosity is on the order of 100 cm2 s−1, while tracer diffusivity estimates are on the order of 0.1 cm2 s−1. The physical interpretation of these estimates is also discussed in the last part of this paper. To obtain reliable solutions, this study introduces cyclic application of the dynamical response to each parameter to minimize the number of long-term sensitivity experiments. The recycling Green’s function method yields weaker bottom friction and enhanced latent heat flux simultaneously with the increased viscosity in high-resolution modeling of the Tsushima/Korea Strait.

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J.C. Hubbert, G. Meymaris, U. Romatschke, and M. Dixon

Abstract

Ground clutter filtering is an important and necessary step for quality control of ground-based weather radars. In this two-part paper ground clutter mitigation is addressed using a time-domain regression filter. Clutter filtering is now widely accomplished with spectral processing where the times series of data corresponding to a radar resolution volume are transformed with a Discrete Fourier Transform after which the zero and near-zero velocity clutter components are eliminated by setting them to zero. Subsequently for reectivity, velocity and spectrum width estimates, interpolation techniques are used to recover some of the power loss due to the clutter filter, which has been shown to reduce bias. The spectral technique requires that the I (in-phase) and Q (quadrature) time series be windowed in order to reduce clutter power leakage away from zero and near-zero velocities. Unfortunately, window functions such as the Hamming, Hann and Blackman attenuate the time series signal by 4.01, 4.19 and 5.23 dB for 64-point times series, respectively, and thereby effectively reduce the number of independent samples available for estimating the radar parameters of any underlying weather echo. Here in Part 1 a regression filtering technique is investigated, via simulated data, which does not require the use of such window functions and thus provides for better weather signal statistics. In Part 2 (Hubbert et al. 2021) the technique is demonstrated using both S-Pol and NEXRAD data. It is shown that the regression filter rejects clutter as effectively as the spectral technique but has the distinct advantage that estimates of the radar variables are greatly improved. The technique is straightforward and can be executed in real time.

Open access
Ganesh Gopalakrishnan, Bruce D. Cornuelle, Matthew R. Mazloff, Peter F. Worcester, and Matthew A. Dzieciuch

Abstract

The 2010–2011 North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) Philippine Sea experiment measured travel times between six acoustic transceiver moorings in a 660–km diameter ocean acoustic tomography array in the Northern Philippine Sea (NPS). The travel-time series compare favorably with travel times computed for a yearlong series of state estimates produced for this region using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model–Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean four-dimensional variational (MITgcm-ECCO 4DVAR) assimilation system constrained by satellite sea surface height and sea surface temperature observations and by Argo temperature and salinity profiles. Fluctuations in the computed travel times largely match the fluctuations in the measurements caused by the intense mesoscale eddy field in the NPS, providing a powerful test of the observations and state estimates. The computed travel times tend to be shorter than the measured travel times, however, reflecting a warm bias in the state estimates. After processing the travel times to remove tidal signals and extract the low-frequency variability, the differences between the measured and computed travel times were used in addition to SSH, SST, and Argo temperature and salinity observations to further constrain the model and generate improved state estimates. The assimilation of the travel times reduced the misfit between the measured and computed travel times, while not increasing the misfits with the other assimilated observations. The state estimates that used the travel times are more consistent with temperature measurements from an independent oceanographic mooring than the state estimates that did not incorporate the travel times.

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Stephen S. Leroy, Chi O. Ao, Olga P. Verkhoglyadova, and Mayra I. Oyola

Abstract

Bayesian interpolation has previously been proposed as a strategy to construct maps of radio occultation (RO) data, but that proposition did not consider the diurnal dimension of RO data. In this work, the basis functions of Bayesian interpolation are extended into the domain of the diurnal cycle, thus enabling monthly mapping of radio occultation data in synoptic time and analysis of the atmospheric tides. The basis functions are spherical harmonics multiplied by sinusoids in the diurnal cycle up to arbitrary spherical harmonic degree and diurnal cycle harmonic. Bayesian interpolation requires a regularizer to impose smoothness on the fits it produces, thereby preventing the overfitting of data. In this work, a formulation for the regularizer is proposed and the most probable values of the parameters of the regularizer determined. Special care is required when obvious gaps in the sampling of the diurnal cycle are known to occur in order to prevent the false detection of statistically significant high-degree harmonics of the diurnal cycle in the atmosphere. Finally, this work probes the ability of Bayesian interpolation to generate a valid uncertainty analysis of the fit. The postfit residuals of Bayesian interpolation are dominated not by measurement noise but by unresolved variability in the atmosphere, which is statistically nonuniform across the globe, thus violating the central assumption of Bayesian interpolation. The problem is ameliorated by constructing maps of RO data using Bayesian interpolation that partially resolve the temporal variability of the atmosphere, constructing maps for approximately every 3 days of RO data.

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Guangyao Dai, Xiaoye Wang, Kangwen Sun, Songhua Wu, Xiaoquan Song, Rongzhong Li, Jiaping Yin, and Xitao Wang

Abstract

A practical method for instrumental calibration and aerosol optical properties retrieval based on coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) and sun photometer is presented in this paper. To verify its feasibility and accuracy, this method is applied into three field experiments in 2019 and 2020. In this method, multiwavelength (440, 670, 870, and 1020 nm) aerosol optical depth (AOD) from sun-photometer measurements are used to estimate AOD at 1550 nm and calibrate integrated CDL backscatter signal. Then it is validated by comparing the retrieved calibrated AOD at 1550 nm from CDL signal and that from sun-photometer measurements. Good agreement between them with the correlation of 0.96, the RMSE of 0.0085, and the mean relative error of 22% is found. From the comparison results of these three experiments, sun photometer is verified to be an effective reference instrument for the calibration of CDL return signal and the aerosol optical properties measurement with CDL is feasible. It is expected to promote the study on the aerosol flux and transport mechanism in the planetary boundary layer with the widely deployed CDLs.

Open access