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Robert A. Case and Harold P. Gerrish

Abstract

The general overview of the 1987 hurricane season in the North Atlantic is presented together with detailed accounts of all named storms. In addition, an unnamed tropical storm and a tropical depression that required watches and/or warnings on the U.S. coastline are discussed.

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John A. Augustine and Kenneth W. Howard

Abstract

Digital GOES infrared imagery is used to document mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) over the United States during 1985. The introduction of digital imagery to this process, which has been carried out since 1978, has made possible a partial automation of the MCC documentation procedure and subsequently expanded opportunities for research. In conjunction with these improvements, the definition of an MCC has been slightly modified from that proposed by Maddox in 1980. The warmer threshold area measurement (⩽−32°C) of Maddox's original criteria has been dropped from consideration because its measurement was too subjective, and also was determined to be unnecessary. In 1985, 59 MCCs were identified; this total is approximately 20 to 40 more than in any year since 1978, when these annual summaries began. The monthly distribution and seasonal progression of MCCs in 1985 are similar to those of prior years. The enhanced MCC activity in June 1985 is associated with a persistent favorable quasi-geostrophic forcing during that period. Significant MCC research conducted in 1985 included a prototype large-scale field program (0.-K. PRE-STORM) in May and June dedicated solely to the investigation of middle-latitude mesoscale convective systems.

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Miles B. Lawrence

Abstract

The 1986 hurricane season for the Atlantic basin is summarized. Six named tropical cyclones were tracked; two hurricanes, Bonnie and Charley, crossed the United States coastline.

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Edward W. Ferguson, Frederick P. Ostby, and Preston W. Leftwich Jr.

Abstract

A review of tornado activity in the United States during 1985 is presented. Annual statistics are compared with both recent and long-term values. Month-by-month highlights of tornado events are summarized. Meteorology patterns associated with three noteworthy tornado outbreaks are examined.

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J. Korshover and J. K. Angell

Abstract

The number and location of stagnation days within the eastern United States, as estimated mainly from a surface geostrophic-wind criterion, is presented by month and for the year 1985. The number of “grid-point days” of stagnation was exactly the same in 1985 as in 1984, a year with relatively little stagnation. However, the stagnation in 1985 occurred mainly over the mid-Atlantic states whereas in 1984 it occurred mainly over the Southeast.

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Robert A. Case

Abstract

A summary of the 1985 hurricane season is presented, including detailed accounts of individual hurricanes. There were eleven named tropical cyclones, seven of which reached hurricane force. A record-typing six hurricanes crossed the U.S. coastline causing a record damage of $4 billion.

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Edward W. Ferguson, Frederick P. Ostby, Preston W. Leftwich Jr., and John E. Hales Jr.

Abstract

Tornado events of 1984 are reviewed. Significant and interesting aspects of the 907 reported tornadoes are noted. Synoptic patterns associated with four noteworthy tornado days are examined.

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J. Korshover and J. K. Angell

Abstract

The number and location of stagnation days within the eastern United States, as estimated mainly from a surface geostrophic-wind criterion, is presented by month and for the year 1984. The number of “grid point days” of stagnation was considerably less in 1984 than in 1981 and 1983, and only Slightly more than in 1982. Thus, 1984 must be considered a year with relatively little stagnation. The stagnation episodes that did occur were almost an in the Southeast.

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Miles B. Lawrence and Gilbert B. Clark

Abstract

A summary of the 1984 Atlantic hurricane season is given. Twelve tropical cyclones and one subtropical cyclone were tracked in the North Atlantic–Caribbean–Gulf of Mexico region. Diana was a landfalling hurricane on the North Carolina coast and Lili was a rare December hurricane.

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D. M. Rodgers, M. J. Magnano, and J. H. Arns

Abstract

Enhanced infrared satellite imagery is used to document the occurrence of mesoscale convective complexes over the United States during 1983. Thirty large convective systems are identified that display satellite-observable characteristics which satisfy the MCC criteria described by Maddox. Details of the life cycles of these 30 systems are given and four examples are discussed in the context of large‐scale midtropospheric features. This is the third in a series of annual summaries assembled as a documentation for those interested in investigating the mesoscale convective weather systems that occur over the United States.

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