Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 2,611 items for :

  • Journal of Hydrometeorology x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Hongxing Zheng
,
Francis H.S. Chiew
, and
Lu Zhang

Abstract

Dominant hydrological processes of a catchment could shift due to a changing climate. This climate-induced hydrological nonstationarity could affect the reliability of future runoff projection developed using a hydrological model calibrated for the historical period as the model or parameters may no longer be suitable under a different future hydroclimate. This paper explores whether competing parameterization approaches proposed to account for hydrological nonstationarity could improve the robustness of future runoff projection compared to the traditional approach where the model is calibrated targeting overall model performance over the entire historical period. The modeling experiments are carried out using climate and streamflow datasets from southeastern Australia, which has experienced a long drought and exhibited noticeable hydrological nonstationarity. The results show that robust multicriteria calibration based on the Pareto front can provide a more consistent model performance over contrasting hydroclimate conditions, but at a slight expense of increased bias over the entire historical period compared to the traditional approach. However, the robust calibration does not necessarily result in a more reliable projection of future runoff. This is because the systematic bias in any parameterization approach would propagate from the historical period to the future period and would largely be cancelled out when estimating the relative runoff change. Ensemble simulations combining results from different parameterization considerations could produce a more inclusive range of future runoff projection as it covers the uncertainties due to model parameterization.

Open access
Xiong Zhou
,
Guohe Huang
,
Yurui Fan
,
Xiuquan Wang
, and
Yongping Li

Abstract

Long-term hydrological projections can vary substantially depending on the combination of meteorological forcing dataset, hydrologic model (HM), emissions scenario, and natural climate variability. Identifying dominant sources of model spread in an ensemble of hydrologic projections is critically important for developing reliable hydrological projections in support of flooding risk assessment and water resources management; however, it is not well understood due to the multifactor and multiscale complexities involved in the long-term hydrological projections. Therefore, a stepwise clustered Bayesian (SCB) ensemble method will be first developed to improve the performance of long-term hydrological projections. Meanwhile, a mixed-level factorial inference (MLFI) approach is employed to estimate multiple uncertainties in hydrological projections over the Jing River basin (JRB). MLFI is able to reveal the main and interactive effects of the anthropogenic emission and model choices on the SCB ensemble projections. The results suggest that the daily maximum temperature under RCP8.5 in the 2050s and 2080s is expected to respectively increase by 3.2° and 5.2°C, which are much higher than the increases under RCP4.5. The maximum increase of the RegCM driven by CanESM2 (CARM)-projected changes in streamflow for the 2050s and 2080s under RCP4.5 is 0.30 and 0.59 × 103 m s−3 in November, respectively. In addition, in a multimodel GCM–RCM–HM ensemble, hydroclimate is found to be most sensitive to the choice of GCM. Moreover, it is revealed that the percentage of contribution of anthropogenic emissions to the changes in monthly precipitation is relatively smaller, but it makes a more significant contribution to the total variance of changes in potential evapotranspiration and streamflow.

Significance Statement

Increasing concerns have been paid to climate change due to its aggravating impacts on the hydrologic regime, leading to water-related disasters. Such impacts can be investigated through long-term hydrological projection under climate change. However, it is not well understood what factor plays a dominant role in inducing extensive uncertainties associated with the long-term hydrological projections due to plausible meteorological forcings, multiple hydrologic models, and internal variability. The stepwise cluster Bayesian ensemble method and mixed-level factorial inference approach are employed to quantify the contribution of multiple uncertainty sources. We find that the total variance of changes in monthly precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and streamflow can be mainly explained by the model choices. The identified dominant factor accounting for projection uncertainties is critically important for developing reliable hydrological projections in support of flooding risk assessment and water resources management. It is suggested that more reliable models should be taken into consideration in order to improve the projection robustness from a perspective of the Loess Plateau.

Restricted access
Mei Hou
,
Lan Cuo
,
Amirkhamza Murodov
,
Jin Ding
,
Yi Luo
,
Tie Liu
, and
Xi Chen

Abstract

Transboundary rivers are often the cause of water related international disputes. One example is the Amu Darya River, with a catchment area of 470,000 km2, that passes through five countries and provides water resource for 89 million people. Intensified human activities and climate change in this region have altered hydrological processes and led to water related conflicts and ecosystem degradation. Understanding streamflow composition and quantifying the change impacts on streamflow in the Amu Darya Basin (ADB) are imperative to water resources management. Here, a degree-day glacier-melt scheme coupled offline with the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrological model (VIC-glacier), forced by daily precipitation, maximum and minimum air temperature, and wind speed, is used to examine streamflow composition and changes during 1953–2019. Results show large differences in streamflow composition among the tributaries. There is a decrease in snow melt component (−260.8 m3 s−1) and rainfall component (−30.1 m3 s−1) at Kerki but an increase in glacier melt component (160.0 m3 s−1) during drought years. In contrast, there is an increase in snow melt component (378.6 m3 s−1) and rainfall component (12.0 m3 s−1) but a decrease in glacier melt component (−201.8 m3 s−1) during wet years. Using the VIC-glacier and climate elasticity approach, impacts of human activities and climate change on streamflow at Kerki and Kiziljar during 1956–2015 are quantified. Both methods agree and show a dominant role played by human activities in streamflow reduction, with contributions ranging 103.2– 122.1%; however, the contribution of climate change ranges in −22.1– −3.2%.

Restricted access
Tzu-Ying Yang
,
Cho-Ying Huang
,
Jehn-Yih Juang
,
Yi-Ying Chen
,
Chao-Tzuen Cheng
, and
Min-Hui Lo

Abstract

Fog plays a vital role in maintaining ecosystems in montane cloud forests. In these forests, a large amount of water on the surface of leaves and canopy (hereafter canopy water) evaporates during the morning. This biophysical process plays a critical factor in regulating afternoon fog formation. Recent studies have found that alterations in precipitation, temperature, humidity, and CO2 concentrations associated with future climate changes may affect terrestrial hydroclimatology, but the responses in cloud forests remain unclear. Utilizing numerical experiments with the Community Land Model, we explored changes in surface evaporative fluxes in Chi-Lan Mountain cloud forests in northeastern Taiwan under the RCP8.5 scenario with changes in the aforementioned various atmospheric variables. The results showed that increased rainfall intensity in climate change runs decreased the accumulation of canopy water, while larger water vapor concentrations led to more nighttime condensation on leaves. Elevated CO2 concentrations did not greatly impact canopy water amounts, but photosynthesis was enhanced, while transpiration was reduced and contributed to decreased latent heat fluxes, implying the importance of forest plant physiology in modulating land evaporative fluxes. Evapotranspiration decreased in Chi-Lan due to multiple combined factors, in contrast to the expected intensification in the global water cycle under global warming. The study, however, is restricted to an offline land surface model without land–atmosphere interactions and the interactions with adjacent grids, which deserves further analyses for the water cycle changes in the montane cloud forest regions.

Open access
Benjamin Krichman
,
Srinivas Bettadpur
, and
Tatyana Pekker

Abstract

GRACE and GRACE Follow-On (GRACE-FO) mission data are utilized to assess mass flux derived from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and the NLDAS-2 Noah land surface model via multiple water balance formulations. Water balances are computed for 18 medium size basins in North America at the USGS Watershed Boundary Dataset HU2 level over the span of the GRACE and GRACE-FO missions (2002–21). Performance of model-derived mass flux is presented in the context of statistical agreement to changes in terrestrial water storage (ΔTWS) derived from Center for Space Research (CSR) GRACE RL06 mass concentrations (mascons), and GRACE and NARR uncertainty is estimated against comparable datasets. The land surface water balance method utilizing NLDAS-2 Noah consistently outperforms the total column method utilizing NARR, which is likely due to enhanced precipitation forcing and an updated Noah model version used in NLDAS-2. The surface approach to the calculation of atmospheric moisture flux divergence is carried through the presented analyses and is demonstrated to be comparable in performance to the more common volume approach. Mass balance methodology, basin characteristics, and ΔTWS signal characteristics are assessed to quantify effects on model performance and while factors such as basin size, basin average topography gradient, and ΔTWS annual amplitude are shown to have a measurable effect on model performance, no single factor exhibited a dominant or consistent effect. Drought conditions are shown to have a significant temporally localized effect on model-derived mass flux accuracy, with NARR being particularly susceptible to this effect.

Significance Statement

Measurements of Earth’s gravity field from the GRACE and GRACE-FO satellite missions are utilized to create estimates of water storage changes in 18 North American river basins that are compared to changes in water storage calculated from an atmospheric model reanalysis (NARR) and a land surface model (NLDAS-2 Noah). The resulting comparison demonstrates that certain basin characteristics can have a slight effect on model accuracy, while climatic conditions such as drought can have a major impact on model accuracy. This work provides useful quantification of when and where modeled water transport loses accuracy, which is integral to our understanding of the present and future distribution of this crucial resource and the natural processes that affect it.

Open access
Huibin Gao
,
Qin Ju
,
Peng Jiang
,
Wenming Yan
,
Wei Wang
,
Xiaolei Fu
, and
Zhenchun Hao

Abstract

Shallow groundwater evaporation (Eg ) is a major component of the hydrological cycle, especially in semiarid and arid locations. Empirical methods are commonly used to estimate Eg . However, most of these methods can only weakly represent Eg variations along the soil depth and do not consider the energy driver. In this paper, a temperature coefficient was proposed and incorporated into two preferred empirical models to characterize the impacts of soil temperature and air temperature lags on Eg . The method was evaluated using in situ daily data obtained from nonweighing bare soil lysimeters. The results indicated that the models that considered the temperature gradient variable (T) conformed to the changes in the actual Eg values with depth more appropriately than the original models, accompanied by 4.3%–8.8% accuracy improvements overall. Shallow groundwater evaporation Eg was found to be influenced by the water table depth (H), T, and pan evaporation (E 0) in descending order, and strong interactions were found between H and T. Moreover, the impact of precipitation on Eg was investigated; measurements from dry days without precipitation revealed the actual Eg process, the relative errors in the cumulative Eg values derived at different depths demonstrated a positive relationship with infiltration recharge, and the errors related to precipitation induced 6.7%–8.3% Eg underestimations. These results contribute to a better understanding of evaporative losses from shallow groundwater and the typical Eg situation that occurs simultaneously with recharge, and they provide promising perspectives for corresponding integrated hydrologic modeling research.

Restricted access
G. Cristina Recalde-Coronel
,
Benjamin Zaitchik
,
William Pan
, and
Augusto Getirana

Abstract

Land surface models (LSMs) rely on vegetation parameters for use in hydrological and energy balance analysis, monitoring, and forecasting. This study examines the influence that vegetation representation in the Noah-Multiparameterization (Noah-MP) LSM has on hydrological simulations across the diverse climate zones of western tropical South America (WTSA), with specific consideration of hydrological variability associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The influence of model representation of vegetation on simulated hydrology is evaluated through three simulation experiments that use 1) satellite-derived constant MODIS; 2) satellite-derived time-varying MODIS; and 3) the Noah-MP dynamic leaf model. We find substantial differences in vegetation fields between these simulations, with the Noah-MP dynamic leaf model diverging significantly from satellite-derived vegetation fields in many ecoregions. Impacts on simulated hydrology were, however, found to be modest across climate zones, except for select extreme events. Also, although impacts on hydrology under ENSO-induced variability were small, we find that the Noah-MP dynamic leaf model simulates a positive relationship between rainfall and vegetation in humid ecoregions of WTSA, where satellite observations may indicate the opposite. The relatively small sensitivity of simulated hydrology to vegetation scheme suggests that the performance of hydrological monitoring and forecasting in WTSA that uses Noah-MP is largely unaffected by the choice of vegetation scheme, such that using a simple climatological default is generally no worse than adopting more complicated options. The presence of some differences between the time-varying and constant MODIS simulations for hydrologic extremes, however, indicates that time-varying MODIS configuration might be more suitable for hydrological hazards applications.

Restricted access
Kyle K. Hugeback
,
Kristie J. Franz
, and
William A. Gallus Jr.

Abstract

Errors associated with the location of precipitation in QPFs present challenges when used for hydrologic prediction, particularly in small watersheds. This work builds on a past study that systematically shifted QPFs prior to inputting them into a hydrologic model to generate streamflow ensembles. In the original study which used static, predetermined shifting distances, flood detection improved, but false alarms increased due to large ensemble spread. The present research tests a more informed approach by randomly selecting shift directions and distances based on the distribution of displacement errors from a sample of QPFs. Precipitation forecasts were taken from the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh Ensemble (HRRRE), and streamflow predictions were generated using the Weather Research and Forecasting hydrological modeling system version 5.1.1 in a National Water Model 2.0 configuration. A 63-member streamflow ensemble was generated using the nine original HRRRE and 54 shifted HRRRE members. Two ensemble updating schemes were tested in which ensemble member weights were adjusted using precipitation location and QPF displacement present at convective initiation. The ensembles using QPF shifted based on climatological spatial errors showed higher probabilistic forecasting skill, while having comparable dichotomous forecasting skill to the original HRRRE ensemble. Other methods of selecting nine ensemble members from the full 63-member suite did not show significant improvement. Flood peak timing showed frequent errors, with average timing errors being around five hours early. Larger watersheds tended to have better skill metric score than smaller basins, with increased skill being added by the shifting of QPF.

Restricted access
José C. Fernández-Alvarez
,
Marta Vázquez
,
Albenis Pérez-Alarcón
,
Raquel Nieto
, and
Luis Gimeno

Abstract

Moisture transport and changes in the source-sink relationship play a vital role in the atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle. Lagrangian approaches have emerged as the dominant tool to account for estimations of moisture sources and sinks; those that use the FLEXPART model fed by ERA-Interim reanalysis are most commonly used. With the release of retesting ERA5 higher spatial resolution, it is crucial to compare the representation of moisture sources and sinks using the FLEXPART Lagrangian model with different resolutions in the input data, as well as its version for WRF-ARW input data, the FLEXPART-WRF. In this study, we compare this model for 2014 and moisture sources for the Iberian Peninsula and moisture sinks of North Atlantic and Mediterranean. For comparison criteria, we considered FLEXPARTv9.0 outputs forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis as “control values”. It is concluded that FLEXPARTv10.3 forced with ERA5 data at various horizontal resolutions (0.5° and 1°) represents moisture source and sink zones as represented forced by ERA-Interim (1°). In addition, the version fed with the dynamic downscaling WRF-ARW outputs (∼ 20 km), previously forced with ERA5, also represents these patterns accurately, allowing this tool to be used in future investigations at higher resolutions and for regional domains.

Restricted access
Jiabao Wang
,
Michael J. DeFlorio
,
Bin Guan
, and
Christopher M. Castellano

Abstract

The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is a unique type of organized tropical convection varying primarily on subseasonal timescales and is recognized as an important source of subseasonal predictability for midlatitude weather phenomena. This study provides observational evidence of MJO impacts on precipitation extreme intensity, frequency, and duration over the western U.S.. The results suggest a robust increase in precipitation extremes, especially in frequency, relative to climatological conditions over most of the western U.S. when the MJO is in its western Pacific phases during the extended boreal winter (October to March). Opposite changes are observed when the MJO is located over the Indian Ocean and Maritime Continent.

The above MJO influence is characterized by strong seasonality, with the increase in extreme frequency mainly found in late autumn/early winter (OND) over California (CA) and weaker or opposite response found in late winter (JFM). Also, MJO impacts have stronger regional consistency and persist for a longer time in OND compared to JFM. The seasonality of MJO impacts largely originates from the different amplitudes and patterns of both the MJO and basic states that are weaker and located/retreated more northwestward in OND than in JFM. This leads to different responses in MJO teleconnections including moisture transport and AR activity that contribute to the different precipitation extreme changes. The strong seasonality of the relationship between the MJO and western U.S. extreme precipitation shown in this study has implications to the source of subseasonal-to-seasonal predictions, which has potential value to stakeholders including water resource managers.

Restricted access