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ShaoPeng Che
,
Kai Kuang
, and
Shujun Liu

Abstract

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increasingly played pivotal roles in shaping climate agendas and mobilizing individuals to engage in environmental initiatives. However, the nature of NGOs’ online interaction with users, especially in developing countries, remains largely unexplored. This study focused on the dynamics of engagement between a Chinese NGO, Chinese Weather Enthusiasts (CWE), and Chinese youth on the social media platform of Bilibili. The research comprised two main components. First, named entity recognition was employed to analyze weather-related terms in CWE’s posts on Bilibili, and dynamic topic modeling was utilized to uncover shifts in thematic focus. Subsequently, descriptive analysis and negative binomial regression were employed to investigate the correlation between weather types and user engagement metrics. The study unveiled two noteworthy findings: first, CWE posts are closely linked to short-term weather, providing timely content that may meet the public’s demand for climate information. Second, the engagement of Chinese youth users is not affected by extreme weather types. Future research should continue to elucidate strategies that NGOs can employ to enhance online engagement among youth users.

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James E. Overland
,
Elizabeth Siddon
,
Gay Sheffield
,
Thomas J. Ballinger
, and
Cody Szuwalski

Abstract

Our goal is to tie climate-scale meteorology to regional physics and ecosystem changes and demonstrate a few resulting impacts to which regional peoples are having to respond in the Alaskan Bering Strait region. The sea ice loss events in the winters of 2017/18 and 2018/19 initiated a series of marine environmental, ecological, and industrial changes through a chain of connected events from jet-stream meanders, storms, southerly winds, warmer sea temperatures, and minimum sea ice cover. Resulting impacts continue as coastal communities respond to ongoing nutritional, cultural, and economic challenges. Global warming potentially initiated these events through a weakened atmospheric Arctic Front. Ecological shifts included a transition/reorganization of the Bering Strait regional marine ecosystem. Subsequent changes included shifts in zooplankton species, increases in large-bodied, predatory fish species moving northward, an ice seal unusual mortality event, and seven consecutive years of multispecies seabird die-offs. These changes in the marine ecosystem create a serious food security concern. Ongoing impacts include large, toxic harmful algal blooms and coastal erosion. Recent changes to the maritime industries of the transboundary waters of the Bering Strait include increased industrial ship traffic, planned development of the Port of Nome, and northward proximity of foreign fishing activity. Projections for the next decades are for an increasing frequency of low sea ice years and continuing ecosystem and industrial transitions that contribute to increasing economic and food security concerns for the 16 coastal communities that compose the Bering Strait region.

Significance Statement

Extreme events in the atmosphere/oceans and resultant record sea ice minimums in 2018 and 2019 were manifested in marine ecosystem transitions and maritime industry impacts. This led to ongoing concerns over the food safety and food security of marine resources essential to the nutritional, cultural, and economic well-being of Alaskan coastal communities of the Bering Strait region. Persistent weakening of the Arctic Front may signal an increased frequency of low sea ice events into the next decades.

Open access
Meng Wang
,
Cheng Huang
, and
Qingguo Zhao

Abstract

The impacts of climate change on health are a critical public health issue, but the association between extreme temperatures and birth outcomes remains poorly understood. This paper links over 1 million birth records from Dongguan, China, between 2004 and 2013, to meteorological data. We investigate the relationship between extreme temperatures and birth outcomes and explore the heterogeneity among different demographic and socioeconomic factors, including maternal migrant status, education level, and mode of delivery. We find that one percentage increase in the number of days exposed to extreme heat during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in birth weight of 2.31 grams and a 2% increase in odds of LBW, while exposure to extreme cold temperatures is associated with a reduction in birthweight (0.66 g) and an increase in risk of LBW (1%). The association between extreme high temperatures and adverse birth outcomes is stronger for groups with disadvantaged social status. Specifically, the migrant group (for extreme heat exposure, local residents, −0.37 g, intra-provincial migrants, −2.75 g, out-of-province migrants, −2.49 g), the less-educated group (for extreme heat exposure, middle school or below, −2.47 g, high school or above, −1.66 g), and the group with vaginal birth (for extreme heat exposure, C-sections, −1.56 g, vaginal birth, −2.62 g) are more sensitive to extreme weather conditions. Our study provides further evidence about the association of extreme temperatures with birth outcomes and for vulnerable groups of pregnant women.

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Breanna C. Beaver
,
Shannon L. Navy
, and
Jennifer L. Heisler

Abstract

In order to produce a climate-literate society willing to take action, students must be educated on the causes, changes, impacts, and solutions of climate change. One way to ensure students are educated on climate change is to have robust science standards. However, little is known about the collective climate change standards in the United States (US). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to conduct an analysis of the US K-12 science standards to uncover where the climate change standards are located in different grade levels and the extent to which the collective US curriculum covers topics of climate change. This study was a qualitative content analysis of US K-12 climate change standards. The results show that most US climate change standards are found within the high school grade levels and the Earth and Space Science domains. All US states address topics of climate change within their standards, however general mentions of climate change were cited most often. Finally, the majority of states address both natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change. Implications for policy makers and educators are included.

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Deniss J. Martinez
,
Alison M. Meadow
,
Beth Rose Middleton Manning
, and
Julie Maldonado

Abstract

Climate and weather-related disasters in California illustrate the need for immediate climate change action - both mitigation to reduce impacts and adaptation to protect our communities, relatives, and the ecosystems we depend upon. Indigenous frontline communities face even greater threats from climate impacts due to historical and political legacies of environmental injustice. Climate change adaptation actions have proven challenging to implement as communities struggle to access necessary climate data at appropriate scales, identify effective strategies that address community priorities, and obtain resources to act, at a whole-community level. In this paper, we present three examples of Indigenous communities in California that have used a climate justice approach to climate change adaptation. These communities are drawing upon community knowledge and expertise to address the challenges of adaptation planning, and taking actions that center community priorities. The three cases address emergency preparation and response, cultural burning and fire management, and community organizing and social cohesion. Across these spheres, they illustrate the ways in which a community-based and climate justice-focused approach to adaptation can be effective in addressing current threats, while also addressing the legacy of imposed, socially constructed vulnerability and environmental injustices. Because we recognize the need for multiple knowledges and skills in adaptation actions, we include recommendations that have emerged based on what’s been learned through these long-standing and engaged participatory research collaborations for climate scientists who wish to contribute to climate justice-focused adaptation efforts by using scientific data to support – not supplant – community efforts, target funding toward genuine community engagement and adaptation actions, and become aware of the historical and political legacies that created the climate vulnerabilities and injustices evident today.

Open access
Tomáš Púčik
,
David Rýva
,
Miloslav Staněk
,
Miroslav Šinger
,
Pieter Groenemeijer
,
Georg Pistotnik
,
Rainer Kaltenberger
,
Miloš Zich
,
Jan Koláček
, and
Alois Holzer

Abstract

A violent tornado occurred in Czechia on 24 June 2021, killing 6 and causing at least 576 injuries. There were more indirect than direct injuries. The tornado was rated IF4 using a draft version of the International Fujita scale. This was the first violent tornado in Czechia and one of only 17 violent, i.e. (I)F4 or higher, tornadoes that occurred in Europe since 1950. The tornado reached the width of 3.5 km, the widest on record in Europe. The case presents an important opportunity to investigate the impacts of such strong tornado in the area, where they are rare, no tornado warnings are issued and where the building standards are different from the typically investigated tornadoes in the United States.

We discuss challenges in organizing the damage survey, which took 3 days and involved meteorologists from 3 countries. A wind damage survey guide to aid mitigating these was written by the European Severe Storms Laboratory and initiated the development of a wind damage surveying app.

The damage survey showed that most of the inhabited buildings built using heavy masonry and rigid ceilings did not collapse in IF2/3 winds, but only with IF4 winds. Eyewitness reports collected after the tornado show that many people were not aware of the risk associated with the tornado. Eventually, most people tried to shelter in the most secure part of the house, but it was often too late. This case highlights the need for a better communication of tornado risk to the public in Europe.

Open access
Julia Olson
and
Patricia Pinto da Silva

Abstract

The use of oral histories in social scientific approaches to climate change has enabled richly detailed explorations of the situated, meaning-laden dimensions of local experiences and knowledge. But “big data” approaches have been increasingly advocated as a means to scale up understandings from individual projects, through better utilizing large collections of qualitative data sources. This article considers the issues raised by such secondary analysis, using the NOAA Voices Oral History Archives, an online database with a focus on coastal communities and groups thought especially vulnerable to climatic changes. Coupling largerscale methods such as text-mining with more traditional methods such as close reading reveals variations across time and space in the ways people talk about environmental changes, underscoring how memories and experiences shape understandings and the subtlety with which these differences are articulated and culturally inscribed. Looking across multiple collections illuminates those shared understandings, points of contention, and differences between communities that might be obscured if decontextualized, showing the importance of “small data” approaches to “big data” to fully understand the deeply cultural understandings, perceptions, and histories of environmental changes such as climate change.

Open access
Free access
Claire L. Little
,
David M. Schultz
,
Belay B. Yimer
, and
Anna L. Beukenhorst

Abstract

Although many people believe their pain fluctuates with weather conditions, both weather and pain may be associated with time spent outside. For example, pleasant weather may mean that people spend more time outside doing physical activity and exposed to the weather, leading to more (or less) pain, and poor weather or severe pain may keep people inside, sedentary, and not exposed to the weather. We conducted a smartphone study where participants with chronic pain reported daily pain severity, as well as time spent outside. We address the relationship between four weather variables (temperature, dewpoint temperature, pressure, and wind speed) and pain by proposing a three-step approach to untangle their effects: (i) propose a set of plausible directed acyclic graphs (also known as DAGs) that account for potential roles of time spent outside (e.g., collider, effect modifier, mediator), (ii) analyze the compatibility of the observed data with the assumed model, and (iii) identify the most plausible model by combining evidence from the observed data and domain-specific knowledge. We found that the data do not support time spent outside as a collider or mediator of the relationship between weather variables and pain. On the other hand, time spent outside modifies the effect between temperature and pain, as well as wind speed and pain, with the effect being absent on days that participants spent inside and present if they spent some or all of the day outside. Our results show the utility of using directed acyclic graphs for studying causal inference.

Open access
Shah Md Atiqul Haq
,
Arnika Tabassum Arno
,
Shamim Al Aziz Lalin
, and
Mufti Nadimul Quamar Ahmed

Abstract

Extreme weather events (EWEs) linked to climate change are expected to increase in frequency in the coming years, putting the entire world in danger. Parents exert a significant influence on the lives of their children and the overall function of the family unit. However, natural disasters have a significant impact on daily life and pose an immediate danger, resulting in loss of life, injuries, and property damage. In addition, disasters can also have an impact on the responsibilities that parents play in their house. This study examines the evolving dynamics of parental roles in the context of EWEs, examining the shifting expectations and actual realities of fatherhood and motherhood. The study examines the various effects of EWEs on family structures, gender roles, and parental obligations by conducting a comprehensive review of 30 relevant articles. Our findings indicate that in severe weather conditions, men tend to adopt the position of “father” and are perceived as heroic figures, rescuers, and guardians/protectors who prioritize the well-being of their children and families, as well as take on financial obligations. On the other hand, women are often viewed as caregivers/rescuers/victims during such conditions. Moreover, in many countries, women are expected to care for other family members, including younger children and the elderly, which may limit their mobility during severe weather. Extreme weather conditions affect men and women differently, and there may also be significant differences in gender-related expectations and dimensions within a country. It is therefore essential to thoroughly study how these roles change in response to extreme weather events. We recommend conducting additional rigorous studies, both quantitative and qualitative, to comprehensively examine this relationship. This study will aid in designing initiatives aimed at fostering parenting attributes, particularly in regions susceptible to disasters.

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