Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 71,538 items for :

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Chen Liu
,
Lei Chen
, and
Stefan Liess

Abstract

The features of large-scale atmospheric circulations, storm tracks, and the mean flow–eddy interaction during winter Pacific–North American (PNA) events are investigated using National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis data at subseasonal time scales from 1979 to 2022. The day-to-day variations of storm-track activity and streamfunction reveal that storm-track activity varies along the evolution of mean flow. To better understand storm-track variability with the mean flow–eddy interaction, further exploration is made by analyzing local energy energetics. The changes in horizontal and vertical baroclinic energy conversions from background flow correspond to the storm-track anomalies over the North Pacific, indicating that the anomalies in storm tracks are due to the anomalous mean flow associated with PNA patterns impacting energy conversion through mean flow–eddy interaction. Eddy feedback driven by vorticity and heat fluxes is analyzed. This provides a concrete illustration of how eddy feedback serves as a positive factor for the upper-tropospheric circulation anomalies associated with the PNA pattern.

Significance Statement

The background flow plays a crucial role in governing storm-track dynamics. Our emphasis is on the Pacific storm tracks (PST) and their relation to Pacific–North American (PNA) patterns at subseasonal time scales. We unveil the relationship between anomalies of PST and PNA patterns using local energetics and eddy feedback on a day-by-day basis. It is noteworthy that the evolution of anomalous storm tracks during PNA events is the manifestation of mean flow–eddy interaction. Additionally, we provide detailed confirmation of the impact of anomalous storm tracks on large-scale anomalies associated with the PNA pattern.

Restricted access
Yang Zhao
,
Jianping Li
,
Yuan Tian
, and
Jiao Li

Abstract

This study investigates the disparity in quantitative moisture contribution and synoptic-scale vertical motion in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin (LYRB) for different extreme precipitation (EP) types, which are categorized as EP associated with atmospheric river (AR&EP) or EP associated with nonatmospheric river (non-AR&EP). To analyze moisture contribution, backward tracking using the Water Accounting Model-2layers is performed. In general, the remote moisture contribution is 9.7 times greater than the local contribution, with the ocean contribution being 1.67 times stronger than the land contribution. However, terrestrial and oceanic contributions obviously increase in the EP types, especially for oceanic contribution being double in magnitude. Notably, the west Pacific (WP) contribution emerges as the dominant differentia between the EP types, playing a crucial role in the AR formation. By solving the quasigeostrophic omega equation, the upper-level jet (ULJ) stream acts as the primary dynamic forcing for transverse vertical motion in AR&EP, while the baroclinic trough exhibits a relatively weaker influence. However, both systems have a nearly equal impact on vertical velocity in non-AR&EP. The enhanced shearwise elevation in the non-AR&EP type is the response of the stronger upper-level ridge over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), which induces enhanced Q vector, the divergence pointing toward the LYRB. However, the main dynamic difference is the location of ULJ, which serves as the trigger role although weak. Diabatic forcing proves to be the decisive factor for vertical motion development, the difference attributed to the released excessive latent heating with excess moisture contribution from the WP in AR&EP with enhanced precipitation.

Significance Statement

The main objective of this study is to investigate quantitative moisture contribution by applying Water Accounting Model-2layers and vertical motion attribution using the quasigeostrophic omega equation for extreme precipitation types based on the presence or absence of atmospheric river. Our findings reveal excessive moisture from the west Pacific serving not only as key in atmospheric river formation but also as the primary trigger for intensified diabatic vertical motion, inducing enhanced precipitation. The direction of strong winds in the north of the Tibetan Plateau holds crucial forecasting implications, which determine the location of the upper-level jet stream downstream. The transverse vertical motion, induced by the upper-level jet stream, plays the dominant dynamic role in both extreme precipitation (EP) types.

Restricted access
Teryn J. Mueller
,
Christina M. Patricola
, and
Emily Bercos-Hickey

Abstract

El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences seasonal Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity by impacting environmental conditions important for TC genesis. However, the influence of future climate change on the teleconnection between ENSO and Atlantic TCs is uncertain, as climate change is expected to impact both ENSO and the mean climate state. We used the Weather Research and Forecasting Model on a tropical channel domain to simulate 5-member ensembles of Atlantic TC seasons in historical and future climates under different ENSO conditions. Experiments were forced with idealized sea surface temperature configurations based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble representing: a monthly varying climatology, eastern Pacific El Niño, central Pacific El Niño, and La Niña. The historical simulations produced fewer Atlantic TCs during eastern Pacific El Niño compared to central Pacific El Niño, consistent with observations and other modeling studies. For each ENSO state, the future simulations produced a similar teleconnection with Atlantic TCs as in the historical simulations. Specifically, La Niña continues to enhance Atlantic TC activity, and El Niño continues to suppress Atlantic TCs, with greater suppression during eastern Pacific El Niño compared to central Pacific El Niño. In addition, we found a decrease in the Atlantic TC frequency in the future relative to historical regardless of ENSO state, which was associated with a future increase in northern tropical Atlantic vertical wind shear and a future decrease in the zonal tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) gradient, corresponding to a more El Niño–like mean climate state. Our results indicate that ENSO will remain useful for seasonal Atlantic TC prediction in the future.

Open access
Qingye Min
and
Renhe Zhang

Abstract

The South Pacific Oscillation (SPO), characterized by a north–south dipole-like pattern of sea level pressure anomalies, is one of the key factors in understanding tropical–extratropical interactions in the South Pacific. We show that in boreal summer (June–August), the center of the northern lobe sea level pressure anomalies in the SPO is shifted to the east gradually after the 1960–70s. This study focuses on the relationship between the boreal summer SPO and following winter El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) diversity before and after the eastward shift of the SPO’s subtropical lobe. The eastward shift of the SPO’s subtropical lobe altered both the seasonal footprint mechanism and the trade wind charging mechanism associated with the SPO and thus profoundly influenced the ENSO diversity. It is revealed that when the northern lobe of the SPO shifts to the west of its average location, it tends to strengthen the eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño mainly via the seasonal footprint mechanism. But after the SPO’s northern lobe shifts to the east of its average location, it tends to promote the development of central Pacific (CP) El Niño mainly via the trade wind charging mechanism. The changes in the spatial structure of convection over the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans may be one of the possible causes for the eastward shift in the SPO’s northern lobe. The findings in the present study have implications for a better understanding of ENSO diversity.

Significance Statement

Previous studies have demonstrated that the South Pacific Oscillation (SPO), as an important El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) precursor in the South Pacific, has the potential to provide an enhancement of the prediction of specific ENSO flavor. However, the historical variation in the SPO’s spatial structure and related changes in the relationship with the diversity of ENSO are still unclear. In this paper, we show that the subtropical lobe of the boreal summer (June–August) SPO is shifted to the east gradually after the 1960–70s. The changes in the spatial structure have also altered both the seasonal footprint mechanism and the trade wind charging mechanism which play important roles in the developmental processes of different types of ENSO. Our work highlights the importance of the interdecadal changes in the spatial structure of the SPO in understanding the relationship between the SPO and ENSO diversity.

Restricted access
Kelly Lombardo
and
Miranda Bitting

Abstract

The annual, seasonal, and diurnal spatiotemporal heavy convective precipitation patterns over a pan-European domain are analyzed in this study using a combination of datasets, including the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) (IMERG) precipitation rate product, E-OBS ground-based precipitation gauge data, European climatological gauge-adjusted radar precipitation dataset (EURADCLIM), Operational Programme for the Exchange of Weather Radar Information (OPERA) ground-based radar-derived precipitation rates, and fifth major global reanalysis produced by ECMWF (ERA5) total and convective precipitation products. Arrival Time Difference Network (ATDnet) lightning data are used in conjunction with IMERG and EURADCLIM precipitation rates, with an imposed threshold of 10 mm h−1 to classify precipitation as convective. Annually, the largest convective precipitation accumulations are over the European seas and coastlines. In summer, convective precipitation is more common over the European continent, though relatively large accumulations exist over the northern coastal waters and the southern seas, with a seasonal localized maximum over the northern Adriatic Sea. Activity shifts southward to the Mediterranean and its coastlines in autumn and winter, with maxima over the Ionian Sea, the eastern Adriatic Sea, and the adjacent coastline. Over the continent, 1%–10% of the total precipitation accumulated is classified as convective, increasing to 10%–40% over the surrounding seas. In contrast, 30%–50% of ERA5 precipitation accumulations over land is produced by the convective parameterization scheme and 40%–60% over the seas; however, only 1% of ERA5 convective precipitation accumulations are from rain rates exceeding 10 mm h−1. Regional analyses indicate that convective precipitation rates over the inland mountains follow diurnal heating, though little to no diurnal pattern exists in convective precipitation rates over the seas and coastal mountains.

Restricted access
Zhibo Zhang
,
David B. Mechem
,
J. Christine Chiu
, and
Justin A. Covert

Abstract

Because of the coarse grid size of Earth system models (ESMs), representing warm-rain processes in ESMs is a challenging task involving multiple sources of uncertainty. Previous studies evaluated warm-rain parameterizations mainly according to their performance in emulating collision–coalescence rates for local droplet populations over a short period of a few seconds. The representativeness of these local process rates comes into question when applied in ESMs for grid sizes on the order of 100 km and time steps on the order of 20–30 min. We evaluate several widely used warm-rain parameterizations in ESM application scenarios. In the comparison of local and instantaneous autoconversion rates, the two parameterization schemes based on numerical fitting to stochastic collection equation (SCE) results perform best. However, because of Jessen’s inequality, their performance deteriorates when grid-mean, instead of locally resolved, cloud properties are used in their simulations. In contrast, the effect of Jessen’s inequality partly cancels the overestimation problem of two semianalytical schemes, leading to an improvement in the ESM-like comparison. In the assessment of uncertainty due to the large time step of ESMs, it is found that the rainwater tendency simulated by the SCE is roughly linear for time steps smaller than 10 min, but the nonlinearity effect becomes significant for larger time steps, leading to errors up to a factor of 4 for a time step of 20 min. After considering all uncertainties, the grid-mean and time-averaged rainwater tendency based on the parameterization schemes is mostly within a factor of 4 of the local benchmark results simulated by SCE.

Open access
Mohammadvaghef Ghazvinian
,
Luca Delle Monache
,
Vesta Afzali Gorooh
,
Daniel Steinhoff
,
Agniv Sengupta
,
Weiming Hu
,
Matthew Simpson
,
Rachel Weihs
,
Caroline Papadopoulos
,
Patrick Mulrooney
,
Brian Kawzenuk
,
Nora Mascioli
, and
Fred Martin Ralph

Abstract

This study introduces a deep learning (DL) scheme to generate reliable and skillful probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasts (PQPFs) in a postprocessing framework. Enhanced machine learning model architecture and training mechanisms are proposed to improve the reliability and skill of PQPFs while permitting computationally efficient model fitting using a short training dataset. The methodology is applied to postprocessing of 24-h accumulated PQPFs from an ensemble forecast system recently introduced by the Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes (CW3E) and for lead times from 1 to 6 days. The ensemble system was designed based on a high-resolution version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, named West-WRF, to produce a 200-member ensemble in near–real time (NRT) over the western United States during the boreal cool seasons to support Forecast-Informdayed Reservoir Operations (FIRO) and studies of prediction of heavy-to-extreme events. Postprocessed PQPFs are compared with those from the raw West-WRF ensemble, the operational Global Ensemble Forecast System version 12 (GEFSv12), and the ensemble from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). As an additional baseline, we provide PQPF verification metrics from a recently developed neural network postprocessing scheme. The results demonstrate that the skill of postprocessed forecasts significantly outperforms PQPFs and deterministic forecasts from raw ensembles and the recently developed algorithm. The resulting PQPFs broadly improve upon the reliability and skill of baselines in predicting heavy-to-extreme precipitation (e.g., >75 mm) across all lead times while maintaining the spatial structure of the high-resolution raw ensemble.

Restricted access
Xinxin Xie
,
Xiao Xiao
,
Jieying He
,
Pablo Saavedra Garfias
,
Tiejian Li
,
Xiaoyu Yu
,
Songyan Gu
, and
Yang Guo

Abstract

This study investigates precipitation observed by a set of collocated ground-based instruments in Zhuhai, a coastal city located at the southern tip of the Pearl River Delta of Guangdong Province in South China. Seven months of ground-based observations from a tipping-bucket rain gauge (RG), two laser disdrometers (PARSIVEL and Present Weather Sensor 100 (PWS)], and a vertically pointing Doppler Micro Rain Radar-2 (MRR), spanning from December 2021 to July 2022, are statistically evaluated to provide a reliable reference for China’s spaceborne precipitation measurement mission. Rainfall measurement discrepancies are found between the instruments though the collocated deployment mitigates uncertainties originating from spatial/temporal variabilities of precipitation. The RG underestimates hourly rain amounts at the observation site, opposite to previous studies, leading to a percent bias (Pbias) of 18.2% of hourly rain amounts when compared to the PARSIVEL. With the same measurement principle, the hourly accumulated rain between the two laser disdrometers has a Pbias of 15.3%. Discrepancies between MRR and disdrometers are assumed to be due to different temporal/spatial resolution, instrument sensitivities, and observation geometry, with a Pbias of mass-weighted mean diameter and normalized intercept parameter of gamma size distribution less than 9%. The vertical profiles of drop size distribution (DSD) derived from the MRR are further examined during extreme rainfalls in the East Asian monsoon season (May, June, and July). Attributed to the abundant moisture which favors the growth of raindrops, coalescence is identified as the predominant effective process, and the raindrop mass-weighted mean diameter increases by 33.7% when falling from 2000 to 600 m during the extreme precipitation event in May.

Significance Statement

The performance and reliability of ground-based observations during precipitation scenarios are evaluated over the coastal area of South China, in preparation for China’s spaceborne precipitation measurement mission. A comparison study, which is carried out to assess the accuracy of rainfall and drop size distribution (DSD), demonstrates that the observation results are relatively reliable though discrepancies between the instruments still exist, while the accompanying microphysical process during extreme precipitation can be quantified with profiling capabilities at the observatory. An accurate and reliable rainfall characterization over the coastal region in South China can contribute to the validation of satellite rainfall products and provide further insights into the microphysical parameterization schemes during extreme precipitation.

Restricted access
Sylvain Dupont
,
Mark R. Irvine
, and
Caroline Bidot

Abstract

Turbulence in canopy plays a crucial role in biosphere–atmosphere exchanges. Traditionally, canopy turbulence has been analyzed under stationary conditions based on atmospheric thermal stability, disregarding the time of the day and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) depth, although recent studies have suggested that daytime canopy turbulence might be influenced by ABL-scale motions. The morning transition offers an intriguing period when the ABL grows and when an increasing influence of large-scale motions on canopy turbulence might be anticipated. Using large-eddy simulations resolving both canopy and ABL turbulence, we investigate here how the turbulence and exchanges at the canopy top change along the morning transition according to the wind intensity. Under significant wind, simulations show that canopy turbulence and exchanges are dominated by mixing-layer-type motions whose characteristics remain constant during the morning transition even though ABL-scale motions imprint on the canopy’s instantaneous velocity fields as the ABL grows. Under low wind, the canopy turbulence is dominated by plumes, whose horizontal sizes extend with the ABL, while their vertical sizes reach a limit before the morning transition ends. In the early morning, canopy-top exchanges are influenced by sources from both the canopy top and the ABL entrainment zone, explaining some of the dissimilarity in turbulent transport between scalars, apart from the differences in the location of canopy scalar sources. When reaching the residual layer, the ABL grows quicker, with intense water vapor and carbon dioxide exchanges, dominated by large-scale motions penetrating deep within the canopy, releasing into the atmosphere the nocturnal accumulated carbon dioxide.

Restricted access
Xavier Chartrand
,
Louis-Philippe Nadeau
, and
Antoine Venaille

Abstract

The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is understood to result from wave–mean-flow interactions, but the reasons for its relative stability remain a subject of ongoing debate. In addition, consensus has yet to be reached regarding the respective roles of different equatorial wave types in shaping the QBO’s characteristics. Here, we employ Holton–Lindzen–Plumb’s quasilinear model to shed light on the robustness of periodic behavior in the presence of multiple wave forcings. A comprehensive examination of the various dynamical regimes in this model reveals that increased vertical wave propagation at higher altitudes favors periodicity. In the case of single standing wave forcing, enhanced vertical propagation is controlled by the wave attenuation length scale. The occurrence of nonperiodic states at high forcing amplitudes is explained by the excitation of high vertical unstable modes. Increasing the attenuation length scale prevents the emergence of such modes. When multiple wave forcing is considered, the mean flow generated by a dominant primary wave facilitates greater vertical propagation of a perturbation wave. Raising the altitude where most of the wave damping occurs favors periodicity by preventing the development of secondary jets responsible for the aperiodic behavior. This mechanism underscores the potential role of internal gravity waves in supporting the periodicity of a QBO primarily driven by planetary waves.

Restricted access