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Agustinus Ribal, Ali Tamizi, and Ian R. Young

Abstract

Four scatterometers, namely, MetOp-A, MetOp-B, ERS-2, and OceanSat-2 were recalibrated against combined National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) data and aircraft Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR) data from hurricanes. As a result, continuous calibration relations over the wind speed range from 0 to 45 m s−1 were developed. The calibration process uses matchup criteria of 50 km and 30 min for the buoy data. However, due to the strong spatiotemporal wind speed gradients in hurricanes, a method that considers both scatterometer and SFMR data in a storm-centered translating frame of reference is adopted. The results show that although the scatterometer radar cross section is degraded at high wind speeds, it is still possible to recover wind speed data using the recalibration process. Data validation between the scatterometers shows that the calibration relations produce consistent results across all scatterometers and reduce the bias and root-mean-square error compared to previous calibrations. In addition, the results extend the useful range of scatterometer measurements to as high as 45 m s−1.

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Lillian Muir, Chris Roman, David Casagrande, and Steven D’Hondt

Abstract

The Deep Autonomous Profiler (DAP) is a full-ocean-depth profiler rated to 11 km. Its hydrographic profiles and water samples can provide information on physical oceanographic properties, seawater composition, and biological communities at every depth in the ocean. Designed around a 24-bottle rosette, the DAP is an untethered system able to autonomously collect temperature, salinity, and oxygen profiles, as well as water samples. An adaptive sampling method was developed to analyze the water-column data to identify and sample desired features while under way. Acoustic ranging-only tracking is used to monitor and geolocate the system underwater. In September 2018 the vehicle was tested to 8377 m in the Puerto Rico Trench. The DAP was able to generate full-ocean-depth profiles and collect water samples at both preset and adaptively determined depths. To demonstrate the utility of the DAP, we radiocarbon dated the deepest water sampled in the Puerto Rico Trench, providing the first direct evidence of hadal water-mass age in the trench: 318 ± 25 yr. This paper presents an overview of the DAP system and the Puerto Rico Trench sea trials.

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Shudong He, Youduo Peng, Yongping Jin, Jian Yan, and Buyan Wan

Abstract

Deep-sea sediments hold evolutionary records of the oceanic environment—records of great significance for scientific fields investigating marine sedimentary processes, structural evolution, and seabed mineral resource exploration. However, the acquisition of original samples from deep-sea sediments is completely dependent on advanced seabed sediment collection methods and technical equipment. In this paper, a novel sampler is proposed to obtain intact sediment samples at full ocean depth. It mainly consists of a sampling device, pressure-retaining device, pressure-compensating device, and sample transfer device. The sampler can collect samples at full ocean depth (11 000 m) with a maximum core diameter of 54 mm and core length of 350 mm, and samples can be maintained at near–in situ pressures during recovery. The sampler can be installed on a remote-operated vehicle or human-occupied vehicle, and it can be operated with a single mechanical arm to collect pressure-retained samples. The experimental test showed that the novel sampler had good pressure-retaining performance and suitability with a mechanical arm, and can be applied to pressure-retaining sampling of seabed sediments at depth of 11 000 m.

Open access
Suzhou Pang, Zheng Ruan, Ling Yang, Xiantong Liu, Zhaoyang Huo, Feng Li, and Runsheng Ge

Abstract

Doppler spectra measured by vertically pointing radars are inherently linked to raindrop size distributions (DSDs). But accurate estimation of DSDs remains challenging because raindrop spectra are broadened by atmospheric turbulence and shifted by vertical air motions. This paper presents a novel method to estimate vertical air motions in which there is no need to assume a model for DSD at each range gate. The theory of the new method is that the spectral difference between the adjacent range gates is contributed by vertical air motions and the variability of DSDs. The contribution of the change of DSDs is estimated by looking up the prepared tables [lookup tables (LUTs)] of raindrop velocity difference and shape function difference. Then the vertical air motions can be estimated by minimizing the cost function of the two spectra between the adjacent range gates. The retrieval algorithm is applied to three cases including a stratiform case and two convective cases observed by a C-band vertically pointing radar in Longmen, Guangdong Province, China, in June 2016. Before that, the spectrum broadening effect is removed by the traditional deconvolution method with a wind profiler. The vertical profiles of precipitation parameters are also retrieved to investigate the microphysical process. The precipitation parameters retrieved near the surface are compared with the ground data collected by a two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD), and the results show good agreement.

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Zaid R. Al-Attabi, George Voulgaris, and Daniel C. Conley

Abstract

An examination of the applicability and accuracy of the empirical wave inversion method in the presence of swell waves is presented. The ability of the method to invert Doppler spectra to wave directional spectra and bulk wave parameters is investigated using 1-month data from a 12-MHz Wellen Radar (WERA) high-frequency (HF) radar system and in situ data from a wave buoy. Three different swell inversion models are evaluated from Lipa et al. (LPM), from Wang et al. (WFG), and empirical (EMP), an empirical approach introduced in this study. The swell inversions were carried out using two different scenarios: 1) a single beam from a single radar site and two beams from a single radar site, and 2) two beams from two sites (a single beam per site) intersecting each other at the buoy location. The LPM method utilizing two beams from two different sites was found to provide the best estimations of swell parameters (swell height RMS error: 0.24 m) and showed a good correlation with the partitioned swell in situ values. For the wind-wave inversion, the empirical method presented here is used with an empirical coefficient of 0.3, which seems to be suitable for universal application for all radar operating frequencies. The inverted swell parameters are used to create a swell spectrum that is combined with the inverted wind-wave spectrum to create a full directional wave spectrum. The wave inversion method presented in this study although empirical does not require calibration with in situ data and can be applied to any beam-forming system and operating frequency.

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Zichen Wang, Jian Xu, Xuefeng Zhang, Can Lu, Kangkang Jin, and Yinquan Zhang

Abstract

This paper proposes a two-dimensional underwater sound propagation model using the discontinuous Galerkin finite-element method (DG-FEM) to investigate the influence of current on sound propagation. The acoustic field is calculated by the convected wave equation with the current speed parameter. Based on the current speed data from an assimilation model, a two-dimensional coupled acoustic propagation model in the Fram Strait water area is established to observe the variability in propagation loss under different seasonal velocities in the real ocean environment. The transmission loss and signal time structure are examined. The results obtained in different source frequencies are also compared. It appears that the current velocity, time, and range variation all have an effect on underwater sound propagation.

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F. Joseph Turk, Ramon Padullés, Estel Cardellach, Chi O. Ao, Kuo-Nung Wang, David D. Morabito, Manuel de la Torre Juarez, Mayra Oyola, Svetla Hristova-Veleva, and J. David Neelin

Abstract

Observationally, a major source of uncertainty in evaluation of climate models arises from the difficulty in obtaining globally distributed, fine-scale profiles of temperature, pressure, and water vapor that probe through convective precipitating clouds, from the boundary layer to the upper levels of the free troposphere. In this manuscript, a 2-yr analysis of data from the Radio Occultations through Heavy Precipitation (ROHP) polarimetric radio occultation (RO) demonstration mission onboard the Spanish Paz spacecraft is presented. ROHP measures the difference in the differential propagation phase delay (Δϕ) between two orthogonal polarization receive states that is induced from the presence of nonspherically shaped hydrometeors along the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) propagation path, complementing the standard RO thermodynamic profile. Since Δϕ is a net path-accumulated depolarization and does not resolve the precipitation structure along the propagation path, orbital coincidences between ROHP and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation passive microwave (MW) radiometers are identified to provides three-dimensional precipitation context to the RO thermodynamic profile. Passive MW-derived precipitation profiles are used to simulate the Δϕ along the ROHP propagation paths. Comparison between the simulated and observed Δϕ are indicative of the ability of ROHP to detect threshold levels of ray-path-averaged condensed water content, as well as to suggest possible inferences on the average ice-phase hydrometeor nonsphericity. The use of the polarimetric RO vertical structure is demonstrated as a means to condition the lower-tropospheric humidity by the topmost height of the associated convective cloud structure.

Open access
Julien Marty, Benoit Doury, and Alfred Kramer

Abstract

This paper presents new low and high power spectral density models for pressure fluctuations at Earth’s surface over the frequency range of (10−5–8) Hz. Previously proposed models often included limitations, such as a much narrower frequency range, the inclusion of erroneous and noncalibrated data or recorded data not deconvolved from the measurement system responses. The progress recently made with response modeling and field calibration of pressure fluctuation measurement systems now allows to propose more realistic power spectral density models over an extremely large frequency band. This paper describes how the data were selected, processed, and analyzed to obtain the final global models. In addition, the intermediate results allow the characterization of several atmospheric mechanisms, such as gravity wave saturation, limits of the buoyancy and acoustic cutoff frequencies, or wind turbulence modes. The two proposed low and high power spectral density models are planned to be used for a wide range of applications, including assessing the quality of measured pressure fluctuations, verifying the validity of modeled pressure fluctuations, and supporting the design, testing, and calibration of a new generation of measurement systems. The models presented in this paper are made available to the scientific community.

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Precious Jatau, Valery Melnikov, and Tian-You Yu

Abstract

The S-band WSR-88D is sensitive enough to observe biological scatterers like birds and insects. However, their nonspherical shapes and frequent collocation in the radar resolution volume create challenges in identifying their echoes. We propose a method of extracting bird (insect) features by coherently averaging dual-polarization measurements from multiple radar scans containing bird (insect) migration. Additional features are also computed to capture aspect and range dependence and the variation of these echoes over local regions. Next, ridge classifier and decision tree machine learning algorithms are trained, first only with the averaged dual-polarization inputs and then different combinations of the remaining features are added. The performance of all models for both methods are analyzed using metrics computed from the test data. Further studies on different patterns of birds/insects, including roosting birds, bird migration, and insect migration cases, are used to further investigate the generality of our models. Overall, the ridge classifier using only dual-polarization variables was found to perform consistently well across all these tests. Our recommendation is that this classifier can be used operationally on the U.S. Next Generation Weather Radars (NEXRAD), as a first step in classifying biological echoes. It would be used in conjunction with the existing hydrometeor classification algorithm (HCA), where the HCA would first separate biological from nonbiological echoes, then our algorithm would be applied to further separate biological echoes into birds and insects. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to train a machine learning classifier that is capable of detecting diverse patterns of bird and insect echoes, based on dual-polarization variables at each range gate.

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Therese Rieckh, Jeremiah P. Sjoberg, and Richard A. Anthes

Abstract

We apply the three-cornered hat (3CH) method to estimate refractivity, bending angle, and specific humidity error variances for a number of datasets widely used in research and/or operations: radiosondes, radio occultation (COSMIC, COSMIC-2), NCEP global forecasts, and nine reanalyses. We use a large number and combinations of datasets to obtain insights into the impact of the error correlations among different datasets that affect 3CH estimates. Error correlations may be caused by actual correlations of errors, representativeness differences, or imperfect collocation of the datasets. We show that the 3CH method discriminates among the datasets and how error statistics of observations compare to state-of-the-art reanalyses and forecasts, as well as reanalyses that do not assimilate satellite data. We explore results for October and November 2006 and 2019 over different latitudinal regions and show error growth of the NCEP forecasts with time. Because of the importance of tropospheric water vapor to weather and climate, we compare error estimates of refractivity for dry and moist atmospheric conditions.

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