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  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology x
  • 16th International Symposium for the Advancement of Boundary-Layer Remote Sensing (ISARS 2012) x
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Andreas Rettenmeier, David Schlipf, Ines Würth, and Po Wen Cheng

Abstract

Different certification procedures in wind energy, such as power performance testing or load estimation, require measurements of the wind speed, which is set in relation to the electrical power output or the turbine loading. The wind shear affects the behavior of the turbine as hub heights and rotor diameters of modern wind turbines increase. Different measurement methods have been developed to take the wind shear into account. In this paper an approach is presented where the wind speed is measured from the nacelle of a wind turbine using a scanning lidar system.

The measurement campaign was performed on the two-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART-2) at the National Wind Technology Center in Colorado. The wind speed of the turbine inflow was measured and recalculated in three different ways: using an anemometer installed on a meteorological mast, using the nacelle-based lidar scanner, and using the wind turbine itself. Here, the wind speed was recalculated from turbine data using the wind turbine as a big horizontal anemometer. Despite the small number of useful data, the correlation between this so-called rotor effective wind speed and the wind speed measured by the scanning nacelle-based lidar is high.

It could be demonstrated that a nacelle-based scanning lidar system provides accurate measurements of the wind speed converted by a wind turbine. This is a first step, and it provides evidence to support further investigations using a much more extensive dataset and refines the parameters in the measurement process.

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Mikael Sjöholm, Nikolas Angelou, Per Hansen, Kasper Hjorth Hansen, Torben Mikkelsen, Steinar Haga, Jon Arne Silgjerd, and Neil Starsmore

Abstract

A major risk to helicopters is the unexpected encounter of degraded visual environments in close-to-ground operations, where a loss of visibility often is caused by clouds of dust (brownout) or snow (whiteout) stirred up by intense downwash. The understanding of the phenomenon is limited, and there is a need for instruments that can measure flow fields on scales larger than a few meters with good resolution. This paper reports on the use of synchronized continuous-wave Doppler lidars for rotorcraft downwash flow field studies.

Built from a modified ZephIR wind lidar and a double-prism arrangement for agile beam steering, a wind scanner—WindScanner—has been developed at the Department of Wind Energy at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) Risø campus. The WindScanner measures the line-of-sight component of the airflow remotely and by rapid steering, the line-of-sight direction and the focus position; all points in space within a cone with a full opening angle of 120° can be reached from about 8 m out to some hundred meters depending on the range resolution required.

The first two-dimensional mean wind fields measured in a horizontal plane and in a vertical plane below a hovering search and rescue helicopter are presented. Since the line-of-sight directions of the two synchronized WindScanners were scanned within the plane of interest, the influence of the wind component perpendicular to the plane was avoided. The results also demonstrate the possibilities within less demanding flows encountered within complex terrain and wind-energy-related research for which the WindScanner technology primarily has been developed.

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Vasily Lyulyukin, Rostislav Kouznetsov, and Margarita Kallistratova

Abstract

The structure and dynamic characteristics of the Kelvin–Helmholtz billows (KHB), observed with a sodar in the stable atmospheric boundary layer, are studied by means of composite analysis, which consists in the averaging of samples selected according to certain criteria. Using a specific kind of this method allowed the authors to obtain the fine structure of the perturbation velocity fields from the sodar data. The events of most pronounced KHB were visually selected from echograms of continuous sodar measurements in the Moscow region over 2008–10. The composite patterns of KHB have been constructed for a few cases of clear inclined–stripes echogram patterns to derive a typical finescale structure of billows and a spatial distribution of wind speed and shear within them. The interconnection between echo intensity and wind shear variations within such patterns is shown. The typical distributions of velocity perturbation within various forms of billows are found.

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Laura Bianco, Daniel Gottas, and James M. Wilczak

Abstract

In this paper a Gabor transform–based algorithm is applied to identify and eliminate intermittent signal contamination in UHF wind profiling radars, such as that produced by migrating birds. The algorithm is applied in the time domain, and so it can be used to improve the accuracy of UHF radar wind profiler data in real time—an essential requirement if these wind profiler data are to be assimilated into operational weather forecast models. The added value of using a moment-level Weber–Wuertz pattern recognition scheme that follows the Gabor transform processing is demonstrated.

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Stuart Bradley

Abstract

On a uniform terrain site, differences between a sodar and a mast-mounted cup anemometer will arise because of turbulent fluctuations and wind components being measured in different spaces, and because of the inherent difference between scalar and vector averaging. This paper develops theories for turbulence-related random fluctuations resulting from finite sampling rates and sampling from spatially distributed volumes. Coefficients of determination (R 2) are predicted comparable to those obtained in practice. It is shown that more than two-thirds of the reduction in R 2 arises from differences in the winds measured by mast instruments and by sodars, rather than by sodar errors: both instruments are measuring accurately, but just not in the same place or at the same time. The result is that sodars being used operationally should be able to measure winds to a root-mean-square accuracy of around 2%.

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David Schlipf, Po Wen Cheng, and Jakob Mann

Abstract

Investigations of lidar-assisted control to optimize the energy yield and to reduce loads of wind turbines have increased significantly in recent years. For this kind of control, it is crucial to know the correlation between the rotor effective wind speed and the wind preview provided by a nacelle- or spinner-based lidar system. If on the one hand, the assumed correlation is overestimated, then the uncorrelated frequencies of the preview will cause unnecessary control action, inducing undesired loads. On the other hand, the benefits of the lidar-assisted controller will not be fully exhausted, if correlated frequencies are filtered out. To avoid these miscalculations, this work presents a method to model the correlation between lidar systems and wind turbines using Kaimal wind spectra. The derived model accounts for different measurement configurations and spatial averaging of the lidar system, different rotor sizes, and wind evolution. The method is compared to real measurement data with promising results. In addition, examples depict how this model can be used to design an optimal controller and how the configuration of a lidar system is optimized for a given turbine to improve the correlation.

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Elías Lau, Scott McLaughlin, Frank Pratte, Bob Weber, David Merritt, Maikel Wise, Gary Zimmerman, Matthew James, and Megan Sloan

Abstract

The DeTect Inc. RAPTOR velocity–azimuth display boundary layer (VAD-BL) radar wind profiler is a pulsed Doppler radar used to make automatic unattended measurements of wind profiles in the lower atmosphere. All data products are produced on site, in real time, and utilize quality control software to screen out interference. The nominal frequencies are 915 and 1290 MHz but other frequencies can be accommodated. While the architecture is similar to other boundary layer wind profilers, the RAPTOR VAD-BL is designed to provide consistently superior data quality due to its antenna design and signal processing capabilities. The antenna is a high-performance parabolic reflector with a feed that is designed in house for the operational frequency of the radar. The antenna is mounted on a robust military-grade azimuth-only positioner. The RAPTOR VAD-BL can collect data from several opposing beam positions with the goal of producing higher-quality wind data using the velocity–azimuth display (VAD) algorithm. The Advanced Signal Processing Engine (ASPEN) software used to calculate winds outperforms conventional consensus algorithms. The health and status of all critical subsystems is monitored via the profiler health monitor (PHM), a stand-alone monitor with its own microprocessor. Results from systems deployed for operational applications show the potential for the retrieval of high-quality data with excellent height coverage and a solid design that allows the antenna to perform under sustained high wind loading.

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Jacob Berg, Jakob Mann, and Edward G. Patton

Abstract

This study demonstrates that a pulsed wind lidar is a reliable instrument for measuring angles between horizontal vectors of significance in the atmospheric boundary layer. Three different angles are considered: the wind turning, the angle between the stress vector and the mean wind direction, and the angle between the stress vector and the vertical gradient of the mean velocity vector. The latter is assumed to be zero by the often applied turbulent-viscosity hypothesis, so that the stress vector can be described through the vertical gradient of velocity. In the atmospheric surface layer, where the Coriolis force is negligible, this is supposedly a good approximation. High-resolution large-eddy simulation data show that this is indeed the case even beyond the surface layer. In contrast, through analysis of WindCube lidar measurements supported by sonic measurements, the study shows that it is only valid very close to the surface. The deviation may be significant even at 100 m. This behavior is attributed to mesoscale effects.

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Margarita A. Kallistratova, Rostislav D. Kouznetsov, Valerii F. Kramar, and Dmitrii D. Kuznetsov

Abstract

Continuous sodar measurements of wind profiles have been carried out at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station of the Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics since 2008. The station is located in a slightly inhomogeneous rural area about 45 km west of Moscow, Russia. The data were used to determine the parameters of wind and turbulence within low-level jets in the stable atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Along with the mean velocity profiles, the profiles of variances of wind speed components from the sodar and the profiles of temperature from a microwave radiometer have been used to quantify turbulence and thermal stratification. Data from two sonic anemometers were used to get the near-surface parameters.

The typical standard deviation of the vertical wind component σw within the low-level jet is about 5% of the maximum wind speed in the jet. No noticeable vertical variation of σw across the jets was detected in several earlier sodar campaigns, and it was not found in the present study. An increase in horizontal variances was detected in zones of substantial wind shear, which agrees with earlier published lidar data.

Quasi-periodic structures in the sodar return signal, which appear in sodar echograms as braid-shaped patterns, were found to emerge preferably when a substantial increase of wind shear occurs at the top of the stable ABL. The braid patterns in the sodar echograms were not accompanied by any noticeable increase of observed σw, which disagrees with earlier data and indicates that such patterns may originate from various phenomena.

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C. R. Wood, R. D. Kouznetsov, R. Gierens, A. Nordbo, L. Järvi, M. A. Kallistratova, and J. Kukkonen

Abstract

Two commercial large-aperture scintillometers, Scintec BLS900, were tested on pathlengths of 1840 and 4200 m at about 45–65 m above ground in Helsinki, Finland. From July 2011 through June 2012, large variability in diurnal and annual cycles of both the temperature structure parameter and sensible heat flux were observed. Scintillometer data were compared with data from two eddy-covariance stations. A robust method was developed for the calculation of from raw sonic-anemometer data. In contrast to many earlier studies that solely present the values of , the main focus here is on comparisons of itself. This has advantages, because optical-wavelength scintillometers measure with few assumptions, while the determination of implies the applicability of the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory, which has several inherent limitations. The histograms of compare well between sonic and scintillometer. In-depth analysis is focused on one of the scintillometer paths: both and comparisons gave similar and surprisingly high correlation coefficients (0.85 for and 0.84–0.95 for in unstable conditions), given the differences between the two measurement techniques, substantial sensor separation, and different source areas.

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