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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

Abstract

The active roles of sensible heat supply from the Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension in the rapid development of an extratropical cyclone, which occurred in the middle of January 2013, were examined by using a regional cloud-resolving model. In this study, a control experiment and three sensitivity experiments without sensible and latent heat fluxes from the warm currents were conducted. When the cyclone intensified, sensible heat fluxes from these currents become prominent around the cold conveyor belt (CCB) in the control run. Comparisons among the four runs revealed that the sensible heat supply facilitates deepening of the cyclone’s central pressure, CCB development, and enhanced latent heating over the bent-back front. The sensible heat supply enhances convectively unstable conditions within the atmospheric boundary layer along the CCB. The increased convective instability is released by the forced ascent associated with frontogenesis around the bent-back front, eventually promoting updraft and resultant latent heating. Additionally, the sensible heating leads to an increase in the water vapor content of the saturated air related to the CCB through an increase in the saturation mixing ratio. This increased water vapor content reinforces the moisture flux convergence at the bent-back front, contributing to the activation of latent heating. Previous research has proposed a positive feedback process between the CCB and latent heating over the bent-back front in terms of moisture supply from warm currents. Considering the above two effects of the sensible heat supply, this study revises the positive feedback process.

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Kazutoshi Sato, Atsuyoshi Manda, Qoosaku Moteki, Kensuke K. Komatsu, Koto Ogata, Hatsumi Nishikawa, Miki Oshika, Yuriko Otomi, Shiori Kunoki, Hisao Kanehara, Takashi Aoshima, Kenichi Shimizu, Jun Uchida, Masako Shimoda, Mitsuharu Yagi, Shoshiro Minobe, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

Abstract

Two mesoscale convective events in the baiu frontal zone (BFZ) were documented, based on intensive atmospheric soundings and oceanic castings in the East China Sea during May 2011, in addition to continuous surface meteorological observations, satellite products, and objective analyses. These events occurred while the BFZ was nearly stagnant and a mesolow was deepening in the zone. Near-surface southerlies associated with the low-level jet transported a warm, humid air mass from south of the BFZ. Enhanced evaporation, which was mainly attributable to the high sea surface temperature of the Kuroshio, augmented the moisture content of the air mass and helped maintain a convectively unstable stratification in the lower troposphere around the BFZ.

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

Abstract

This study focused on an explosive cyclone migrating along the southern periphery of the Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension in the middle of January 2013 and examined how those warm currents played an active role in the rapid development of the cyclone using a high-resolution coupled atmosphere–ocean regional model. The evolutions of surface fronts of the simulated cyclone resemble the Shapiro–Keyser model. At the time of the maximum deepening rate, strong mesoscale diabatic heating areas appear over the bent-back front and the warm front east of the cyclone center. Diabatic heating over the bent-back front and the eastern warm front is mainly induced by the condensation of moisture imported by the cold conveyor belt (CCB) and the warm conveyor belt (WCB), respectively. The dry air parcels transported by the CCB can receive large amounts of moisture from the warm currents, whereas the very humid air parcels transported by the WCB can hardly be modified by those currents. The well-organized nature of the CCB plays a key role not only in enhancing surface evaporation from the warm currents but also in importing the evaporated vapor into the bent-back front. The imported vapor converges at the bent-back front, leading to latent heat release. The latent heating facilitates the cyclone’s development through the production of positive potential vorticity in the lower troposphere. Its deepening can, in turn, reinforce the CCB. In the presence of a favorable synoptic-scale environment, such a positive feedback process can lead to the rapid intensification of a cyclone over warm currents.

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Yuta Ando, Masayo Ogi, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

Abstract

Negative Arctic Oscillation (AO) and western Pacific (WP) indices persisted from October to December 2012 in the Northern Hemisphere. For the first time, the monthly AO and WP were both negative for three consecutive months since records have been kept. Although in general negative AO and WP phases cause Siberia, East Asia, and Japan to be abnormally cold, Japan was relatively warm in October 2012 even though both the AO and WP were strongly negative. The temperature of the Sea of Japan reached a record-breaking high in October 2012, and it was found that heating by these very warm waters, despite the small size of the Sea of Japan, overwhelmed the cooling effect of the strongly negative AO and WP in October. Linear regression analyses showed that Japan tends to be warm in years when the Sea of Japan is warm. Consequently, the temperature over Japan is controlled by interannual variations of small-scale oceanic phenomena as well as by large-scale atmospheric patterns. Previous studies have ignored such small-scale oceanic influences on island temperatures.

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