Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 2,811 items for :

  • Journal of Hydrometeorology x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Free access
Yusen Yuan
,
Lixin Wang
,
Zhongwang Wei
,
Hoori Ajami
,
Honglang Wang
, and
Taisheng Du

Abstract

The isotopic composition of evapotranspiration δ ET is a crucial parameter in isotope-based evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning and moisture recycling studies. The Keeling plot method is the most prevalent method to calculate δ ET, though it contains large extrapolated uncertainties from the least squares regression. Traditional Keeling regression uses the mean point of individual measurements. Here, a modified Keeling plot framework was proposed using the median point of individual measurements. We tested the δ ET uncertainty using the mean point [σ ET (mean)] and median point [σ ET (median)]. Multiple resolutions of input and output data from six independent sites were used to test the performance of the two methods. The σ ET (mean) would be greater than σ ET (median) when the mean value of inverse vapor concentration ( 1 / C υ ¯ ) is greater than the median value of inverse vapor concentration [ 1 / C υ ( median ) ]. When applying the filter of r 2 > 0.8, around 70% of σ ET (mean) was greater than σ ET (median). This phenomenon might be due to the normality of the vapor concentration Cυ producing the asymmetric distribution of 1/Cυ . The median method could perform significantly better than the mean method when inputting high-resolution measurements (e.g., 1 Hz) and when the water vapor concentration Cυ is relatively low. Compared to the mean method, applying the median method could on average reduce 6.88% of ET partitioning uncertainties and could on average reduce 9.00% of moisture recycling uncertainties. This study provided a new insight of the Keeling plot method and emphasized handling model output uncertainty from multiple perspectives instead of only from input parameters.

Restricted access
Yuanyuan Zhou
and
Liang Gao

Abstract

The spatiotemporal variations of annual tropical-cyclone-induced rainfall (TCR) and non-tropical-cyclone-induced rainfall (NTCR) during 1960–2017 in Southeast China are investigated in this study. The teleconnections to sea surface temperature, the Arctic Oscillation, the Southern Oscillation, and the Indian Ocean dipole are examined. A significant decrease in annual TCR in the Pearl River basin was detected, while an increase in annual TCR in rainstorms was observed in the northeast of the Pearl River basin and south of the Yangtze River basin. A northward migration of a TCR belt was identified, which was also indicated by the pronounced anomalies of annual TCR. There was in general an increasing trend of non-tropical-cyclone-induced moderate rain, heavy rain, and rainstorms in Southeast China. Compared with the non-tropical-cyclone-induced heavy rain, the abnormal non-tropical-cyclone-induced rainstorms are more northerly. Both monthly TCR and NTCR were remarkably affected by the Arctic Oscillation, Southern Oscillation, and Indian Ocean dipole. TCR was more easily affected by the Arctic Oscillation compared to NTCR.

Significance Statement

Tropical-cyclone- and non-tropical-cyclone-induced rainfall (TCR and NTCR) prevails in Southeast China, and their characteristics of spatiotemporal variability are of significance in predicting rainfall over the study area. Therefore, this study aims to detect the degree to which rainfall varies in time and space, respectively, using the Mann–Kendall test and the empirical orthogonal function method. Moreover, to explore which climatic factor contributes the most to the spatiotemporal variability of TCR and NTCR, the teleconnections to the large-scale climatic indices including sea surface temperature, the Arctic Oscillation, the Southern Oscillation, and the Indian Ocean dipole are studied. The spatiotemporal variations of TCR and NTCR were affected by the sea surface temperature and the other three large-scale climatic indices. The findings in this study are expected to deepen the understanding of spatiotemporal variations of TCR and NTCR over Southeast China and the teleconnections to climatic indices.

Restricted access
Mingze Ding
,
Zhehui Shen
,
Ruochen Huang
,
Ying Liu
, and
Hao Wu

Abstract

Evaluating the accuracy of various precipitation datasets over ungauged or even sparse-gauge areas is a challenging task. Cross-validation methods can evaluate three or more datasets based on the error independence from input data, without relying on ground reference. Here, the triple collocation (TC) method is employed to evaluate multi-source precipitation datasets: gauge-based CGDPA, model-based ERA5, and satellite-derived IMERG-Early, IMERG-Late, GSMaP-NRT, and GSMaP-MVK over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). TC-based results show that ERA5 has better performances than satellite-only precipitation products over mountainous regions with complex terrains. For purely satellite-derived products, IMERG products outperform GSMaP products. Considering the potential existence of error dependency among input datasets, caution should be exercised. Thus, it is necessary to introduce an alternative cross-validation method (generalized Three-Cornered Hat) and explore the applicability of cross-validation from the perspective of error independence. We found that cross-validation methods have high applicability in most TP regions with sparse-gauge density (accounting for about 80.1% of the total area). Additionally, we conducted simulation experiments to discuss the applicability and robustness of TC. The simulation results substantiated that cross-validation can serve as a robust evaluation method over sparse-gauge regions. Although it is generally known that the cross-validation methods can be served in sparse-gauge regions, the application condition of different evaluation methods for precipitation products is identified quantitatively in TP now.

Restricted access
Zhehui Shen
,
Bin Yong
, and
Hao Wu

Abstract

Climatological calibration algorithm (CCA) and satellite–gauge combination (SG) are two official bias adjustments for satellite precipitation estimates (SPE) in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA). The CCA is designed for the near-real-time SPEs, while the SG procedure is a final step to merge pure SPEs with gauge observations. This study explored the impacts of CCA and SG on the systematic and random errors of TMPA SPEs. The errors of TMPA version-7 near-real-time products before and after CCA (RT_UC, RT_C), and the research product TMPA 3B42 (V7), were decomposed into systematic and random components, benchmarked by the China Gauge-based Daily Precipitation Analysis (CGDPA). After being calibrated by CCA, RT_C reduced the systematic errors relative to RT_UC over the Chinese mainland, except in the Tibetan Plateau and Tianshan Mountains. However, CCA did not aid in reducing random errors; instead, it even exacerbated the random errors. On the other hand, the SG merging is more effective in reducing systematic errors of SPEs than CCA calibration because of the direct inclusion of simultaneous gauge data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). We also found that SG merging reduced the random errors of pure SPEs over regions with relatively higher elevations. Despite lower random errors in V7 over the complex terrain region, the SG unfavorably increased the random errors over southeastern China. The results reported here may offer valuable insights into the effects of CCA and SG techniques drawn from TMPA, with the potential to advance the development of bias-adjusting algorithms for SPEs in the future.

Restricted access
Jessica R. P. Sutton
,
Dalia Kirschbaum
,
Thomas Stanley
, and
Elijah Orland

Abstract

Accurately detecting and estimating precipitation at near real-time (NRT) is of utmost importance for early detection and monitoring of hydrometeorological hazards. The precipitation product, Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for the Global Precipitation Mission (IMERG), provides NRT 0.1° and 30-minute precipitation estimates across the globe with only a 4-hour latency. This study was an evaluation of the GPM IMERG version 6 level-3 Early Run 30-minute precipitation product for precipitation events from 2014 through 2020. The purpose of this research was to identify when, where, and why GPM IMERG misidentified and failed to detect precipitation events in California, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah in the United States. Precipitation events were identified based on 15-minute precipitation from gauges and 30-minute precipitation from the IMERG multi-satellite constellation. False positive and false negative precipitation events were identified and analyzed to determine characteristics. Precipitation events identified by gauges had longer duration and had higher cumulative precipitation than those identified by GPM IMERG. GPM IMERG had many false event detections during the summer months suggesting possible virga event detection, which is when precipitation falls from a cloud but evaporates before it reaches the ground. The frequency and timing of the merged Passive Microwave (PMW) product and forward propagation were responsible for IMERG overestimating cumulative precipitation during some precipitation events and underestimating others. This work can inform experts that are using the GPM IMERG NRT product to be mindful of situations where GPM IMERG estimated precipitation events may not fully resolve the hydrometeorological conditions driving these hazards.

Restricted access
Yuting Yang
,
Xiaopeng Cui
,
Ying Li
,
Lijun Huang
, and
Jia Tian

Abstract

The northeast cold vortex (NECV) is an essential system in the northeast region of China (NER). Understanding the moisture source and associated transport characteristics of NECV rainstorms is key to the knowledge of its mechanisms. In this study, we focus on two NECV rainstorm centers during the warm season (May-September) from 2008 to 2013. The FLEXPART model and quantitative contribution analysis method are applied to reveal the moisture sources and their quantitative contribution. The results demonstrate that for the northern NECV rainstorm center (R1), Northeast Asia (35.66%), east-central China and its coastal regions (29.14%) make prominent moisture contributions, followed by R1 (11.37%). Whereas east-central China and its coastal regions (45.16%), the southern NECV rainstorm center itself (R2, 17.90%) and the Northwest Pacific (10.24%) principally contribute to R2. Moisture uptake of Northeast Asia differs between R1 and R2, which could serve as one of the vital indicators to judge where NECV rainstorm falls in NER. Moisture from the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the South China Sea, suffers massive en-route loss, although these sources’ contribution and uptake are positively correlated with the intensity and scale of NECV rainstorms in the two centers. There exists inter-month and geographical variability in NECV rainstorms when the main moisture source region contributes the most. Regulated by the atmospheric circulation and the East Asian summer monsoon, the particle trajectories and source contributions of NECV rainstorms vary from month to month. Sources’ contribution also turns out to be diverse in the overall warm season.

Restricted access
Reyhaneh Rahimi
,
Praveen Ravirathinam
,
Ardeshir Ebtehaj
,
Ali Behrangi
,
Jackson Tan
, and
Vipin Kumar

Abstract

This paper presents a deep supervised learning architecture for 30 min global precipitation nowcasts with a 4-hour lead time. The architecture follows a U-Net structure with convolutional long short-term memory (ConvLSTM) cells empowered by ConvLSTM-based skip connections to reduce information loss due to the pooling operation. The training uses data from the Integrated MultisatellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) and a few key drivers of precipitation from the Global Forecast System (GFS). The impacts of different training loss functions, including the mean-squared error (regression) and the focal-loss (classification), on the quality of precipitation nowcasts are studied. The results indicate that the regression network performs well in capturing light precipitation (<1.6 mm hr−1) while the classification network can outperform the regression counterpart for nowcasting of high-intensity precipitation (>8 mm hr−1), in terms of the critical success index (CSI). It is uncovered that including the forecast variables can improve precipitation nowcasting, especially at longer lead times in both networks. Taking IMERG as a relative reference, a multi-scale analysis, in terms of fractions skill score (FSS), shows that the nowcasting machine remains skillful for precipitation rate above 1 mm hr−1 at the resolution of 10 km compared to 50 km for GFS. For precipitation rates greater than 4 mm hr−1, only the classification network remains FSS-skillful on scales greater than 50 km within a 2-hour lead time.

Restricted access
Zhuoyong Xiao
,
Xinping Zhang
,
Xiong Xiao
,
Xin Chang
, and
Xinguang He

Abstract

Convective/advective precipitation partitions refer to the divisions of precipitation that are either convective or advective in nature, relative to the total precipitation amount. These distinct partitions can have a significant influence on the stable isotope composition of precipitation. This study analyzed and compared the effect of precipitation partitions on δ 18O in precipitation (δ 18O p ) by using daily precipitation stable isotope data from Changsha station and monthly precipitation stable isotope data from the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), under different time scales, time intervals (i.e., annual, warm season, and cold season), and precipitation intensities. The results showed that the correlation between the convective precipitation fraction (CPF) and total precipitation amount was influenced by the intensity of convection in different time intervals. On both the daily and monthly scales, the CPF decreased as the precipitation amount increased in the warm season, while it increased with increasing precipitation amount in the cold season. Regardless of the season, daily δ 18O p at Changsha station consistently increased with an increase in daily CPF. On a daily scale, the effect of convective activity on δ 18O p was stronger than that of the “precipitation amount effect” in the cold season, as compared to the situation in the warm season. As a result, the regression line slope between δ 18O p and CPF increased with increasing precipitation intensity in the warm season, meaning that as the CPF increased, the δ 18O p increased at a faster rate under higher precipitation intensity. Similarly, the slope increased with increasing precipitation intensity in the cold season. This suggests that precipitation intensity and convection intensity can affect the relationship between δ 18O p and CPF. Our findings shed light on how different precipitation partitions affect stable isotope composition of precipitation, thus enhancing our understanding of the variability of precipitation stable isotopes in the monsoon regions of China.

Significance Statement

This study aims to better elucidate the influence of different precipitation partitions on precipitation stable isotopes. In the eastern monsoon region of China, stable isotopes in precipitation showed a robust positive relationship with convective precipitation faction. On a daily scale, the convective activity enhanced the influences of the “precipitation amount effect” on precipitation stable isotopes in the warm season and reduced such influences in the cold season. These results improve our understanding of stable isotopic variability of precipitation in the eastern monsoon region, China.

Restricted access
Nika Tsitelashvili
,
Trent Biggs
,
Ye Mu
, and
Vazha Trapaidze

Abstract

Analyzing water resources in areas with few hydrometeorological stations, such as those in post-Soviet countries, is difficult due to station closures after 1989. In Caucasus, evaluations often rely on outdated data from nearby rivers. We evaluated one national-level precipitation dataset, the Water Balance of Georgia (WBG) with two satellite-based precipitation products from 1981 to 2021, including the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) data and CHIRPS blended with a dense rain gauge network (geoCHIRPS). We modeled mean annual precipitation from geoCHIRPS as a function of coastal distance and elevation. CHIRPS underestimated precipitation in the cold and wet seasons (R 2 = 0.74, r = 0.86) and overestimated dry season precipitation, while geoCHIRPS performed well in all seasons (R 2 = 0.86, r = 0.92). Distance from the coast was a more important predictor of precipitation than elevation in western Georgia, while precipitation correlated positively with elevation in the east. At four hydroelectric plants, the underperformance as a percentage of capacity (∼37%) corresponds with the percentage difference between differences in precipitation products (∼38%), suggesting that plants designed based on WBG may be systematically overdesigned, but further work is needed to determine the reasons for the underperformance of the plants and frequency. We conclude that 1) the existing WBG does not accurately reflect elevation–precipitation relationships near the coast, and 2) for accurate analysis of spatiotemporal precipitation variability and its impacts on hydropower generation and environmental and sustainable water resource management, it is essential to calibrate satellite-based precipitation estimates with additional rain gauge data.

Restricted access