Browse

You are looking at 11 - 16 of 16 items for :

  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology x
  • Fifth International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling (ISTP) x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All
Simon P. Alexander and Toshitaka Tsuda

Abstract

The first campaign-based measurements of virtual temperature in the upper-troposphere and lower-stratosphere (UTLS) region were made with the middle- and upper-atmosphere (MU) radar radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) during 4 days in August 1995. This dataset was examined in order to study high-frequency changes in the stability below 20 km, but especially in the UTLS region. Calculations of the WMO tropopause and cold-point tropopause heights showed the latter to be (1.0 ± 0.6) km higher, where 0.6 km is the standard deviation. A diurnal cycle of temperature and wind dominated the spectra, which was identified as the diurnal solar tide. Its phase maximum occurred in the afternoon between 5 and 15 km and showed upward energy propagation above this height. Changes in the UTLS kinetic energy dissipation rate ε showed significant high-frequency fluctuations embedded within layers that persisted for at least 1 day. Relative to the WMO tropopause height, the median ε increased from (0.5 ± 0.1) × 10−3 m2 s−3 in the upper troposphere to (0.7 ± 0.1) × 10−3 m2 s−3 in the lower stratosphere.

Full access
V. Bellantone, I. Carofalo, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, M. Santese, A. M. Tafuro, and A. Turnone

Abstract

Ground-based particulate matter (PM) samplers, an XeF Raman lidar operating in the framework of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET), and a sun/sky radiometer operating in the framework of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) have been used to characterize vertical profiles, optical and microphysical properties, and chemical composition of aerosols during the 29 June–1 July 2005 dust outbreak that occurred over the central-eastern Mediterranean. Aerosol backscatter coefficient, total depolarization, and lidar ratio vertical profiles revealed that a well-mixed dust layer extending from ∼0.5 to 6 km was present over southeastern Italy on 30 June. Sun/sky radiometer measurements revealed a bimodal lognormal size distribution during all measurement days. The particle volume distribution was found to be well correlated either to the PM mass distribution measured at ground by a seven-stage cascade impactor and to the fine to total suspended PM mass ratio measured by ground-based PM samplers. Scanning electron microscopy and ion chromatography analyses on PM samples revealed that coarse-mode aerosols were mainly made of carbonate, aluminum-silicate, and sea salt particles. Carbon, sulfate, and nitrate particles were the main components of fine-mode aerosols representing more than 50% of the total aerosol load; the significant role of fine-mode anthropogenic particles during a dust event is highlighted.

Finally, the potential capabilities of complementary measurements by passive and active remote sensing techniques and in situ observations to retrieve the vertical distribution of the particle number and mass concentration are analyzed and discussed.

Full access
Ronny Engelmann, Ulla Wandinger, Albert Ansmann, Detlef Müller, Egidijus Žeromskis, Dietrich Althausen, and Birgit Wehner

Abstract

The vertical aerosol transport in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is investigated with lidars. Profiles of the vertical wind velocity are measured with a 2-μm Doppler wind lidar. Aerosol parameters are derived from observations with an aerosol Raman lidar. Both instruments were operated next to each other at the Institute for Tropospheric Research (IfT) in Leipzig, Germany. The eddy correlation technique is applied to calculate turbulent particle mass fluxes on the basis of aerosol backscatter and vertical wind data obtained with a resolution of 75 m and 5 s throughout the PBL. A conversion of particle backscatter to particle mass is performed by applying the IfT inversion scheme to three-wavelength Raman lidar observations. The method, so far, is restricted to stationary and dry atmospheric conditions under which hygroscopic particle growth can be neglected. In a case study, particle mass fluxes of 0.5–2.5 μg m−2 s−1 were found in the upper part of a convective PBL on 12 September 2006.

Full access
Rod Frehlich, Yannick Meillier, and Michael L. Jensen

Abstract

A new in situ measurement system and lidar processing algorithms were developed for improved measurements of boundary layer profiles. The first comparisons of simultaneous Doppler lidar–derived profiles of the key turbulence statistics of the two orthogonal horizontal velocity components (longitudinal and transverse) are presented. The instrument requirements for accurate observations of stably stratified turbulence were determined. A region of stably stratified low turbulence with constant gradients of temperature and velocity was observed above the nocturnal boundary layer using high-rate sensors. The important turbulence parameters were estimated, and turbulence spectra were consistent with new theoretical descriptions of stratified turbulence. The impact of removing the larger-scale velocity features in Doppler lidar estimates of turbulent velocity variance and length scales was investigated. The Doppler lidar–derived estimates of energy dissipation rate ε were found to be insensitive to spatial filtering of the large-scale atmospheric processes. The in situ and lidar-derived profiles were compared for the stable boundary layer in a suburban environment.

Full access
P. C. S. Devara, P. E. Raj, K. K. Dani, G. Pandithurai, M. C. R. Kalapureddy, S. M. Sonbawne, Y. J. Rao, and S. K. Saha

Abstract

Lidar profiling of atmospheric aerosols and clouds in the lower atmosphere has been in progress at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune (18°32′N, 73°52′E, 559 m MSL), India, for more than two decades. To enlarge the scope of these studies, an eye-safe new portable dual polarization micropulse lidar (DPMPL) has been developed and installed at this station. The system utilizes a diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) neodymium–yttrium–aluminum–garnet (Nd:YAG) laser second harmonic, with either parallel polarization or alternate parallel and perpendicular polarization, as a transmitter and a Schmidt–Cassegrain telescope, with a high-speed detection and data acquisition and processing system, as a receiver. This online system in real-time mode provides backscatter intensity profiles up to about 75 km at every minute in both parallel and perpendicular polarization channels, corresponding to each state of polarization of the transmitted laser radiation. Thus, this versatile lidar system is expected to play a vital role not only in atmospheric aerosol and cloud physics research and environmental monitoring but also in weather and climate modeling studies of the impact of radiative forcing on the earth–atmosphere radiation balance and hydrological cycle. This paper provides a detailed description of Asia’s only lidar facility and presents initial observations of space–time variations of boundary layer structure from experiments carried out during winter 2005/06.

Full access
Reginald J. Hill, W. Alan Brewer, and Sara C. Tucker

Abstract

The NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) has two coherent Doppler lidar systems that have been deployed on board research vessels to obtain data during several experiments. The instruments measure the wind velocity relative to the motion of the lidar; therefore, correction for the motion of the platform is required. This article gives a thorough analysis of the correction for lidar velocity measurements. The analysis is general enough to be applied to Doppler velocity measurements from all monostatic ship- and aircraftborne lidars and radars, and generalization to bistatic systems is achievable. The correction is demonstrated using miniature master-oscillator power-amplifier (mini-MOPA) Doppler velocity data obtained during the Rain in Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) experiment.

Full access