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J. Bühl, S. Alexander, S. Crewell, A. Heymsfield, H. Kalesse, A. Khain, M. Maahn, K. Van Tricht, and M. Wendisch

Abstract

State-of-the-art remote sensing techniques applicable to the investigation of ice formation and evolution are described. Ground-based and spaceborne measurements with lidar, radar, and radiometric techniques are discussed together with a global view on past and ongoing remote sensing measurement campaigns concerned with the study of ice formation and evolution. This chapter has the intention of a literature study and should illustrate the major efforts that are currently taken in the field of remote sensing of atmospheric ice. Since other chapters of this monograph mainly focus on aircraft in situ measurements, special emphasis is put on active remote sensing instruments and synergies between aircraft in situ measurements and passive remote sensing methods. The chapter concentrates on homogeneous and heterogeneous ice formation in the troposphere because this is a major topic of this monograph. Furthermore, methods that deliver direct, process-level information about ice formation are elaborated with a special emphasis on active remote sensing methods. Passive remote sensing methods are also dealt with but only in the context of synergy with aircraft in situ measurements.

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P. R. Field, R. P. Lawson, P. R. A. Brown, G. Lloyd, C. Westbrook, D. Moisseev, A. Miltenberger, A. Nenes, A. Blyth, T. Choularton, P. Connolly, J. Buehl, J. Crosier, Z. Cui, C. Dearden, P. DeMott, A. Flossmann, A. Heymsfield, Y. Huang, H. Kalesse, Z. A. Kanji, A. Korolev, A. Kirchgaessner, S. Lasher-Trapp, T. Leisner, G. McFarquhar, V. Phillips, J. Stith, and S. Sullivan

Abstract

Measured ice crystal concentrations in natural clouds at modest supercooling (temperature ~>−10°C) are often orders of magnitude greater than the number concentration of primary ice nucleating particles. Therefore, it has long been proposed that a secondary ice production process must exist that is able to rapidly enhance the number concentration of the ice population following initial primary ice nucleation events. Secondary ice production is important for the prediction of ice crystal concentration and the subsequent evolution of some types of clouds, but the physical basis of the process is not understood and the production rates are not well constrained. In November 2015 an international workshop was held to discuss the current state of the science and future work to constrain and improve our understanding of secondary ice production processes. Examples and recommendations for in situ observations, remote sensing, laboratory investigations, and modeling approaches are presented.

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Guoxiong Wu and Yimin Liu

Abstract

Professor Yanai is remembered in our hearts as an esteemed friend. Based on his accomplishments in tropical meteorology and with his flashes of insight he led his group at the University of California, Los Angeles, in the 1980s and 1990s to explore the thermal features of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and its relation to the Asian monsoon, and he brought forward the TP meteorology established by Ye Duzheng et al. in 1957 to a new stage. In cherishing the memory of Professor Yanai and his great contribution to the TP meteorology, the authors review their recent study on the impacts of the TP and contribute this chapter as an extension of their chapter titled “Effects of the Tibetan Plateau” published by Yanai and Wu in 2006 in the book The Asian Monsoon.

The influence of a large-scale orography on climate depends not only on the mechanical and thermal forcing it exerts on the atmosphere, but also on the background atmospheric circulation. In winter the TP possesses two leading heating modes resulting from the relevant dominant atmospheric circulations, in particular the North Atlantic Oscillation and the North Pacific Oscillation. The prevailing effect of the mechanical forcing of the TP in wintertime generates a dipole type of circulation, in which the anticyclonic gyre in the middle and high latitudes contributes to the warm inland area to the west, and the cold seashore area to the east, of northeast Asia, whereas the cyclonic gyre in low latitudes contributes to the formation of a prolonged dry season over central and southern Asia and moist climate over southeastern Asia. Such a dipole circulation also generates a unique persistent rainfall in early spring (PRES) over southern China.

In 1980s, Yanai and his colleagues analyzed the in situ observation and found that the constant potential temperature boundary layer over the TP can reach about 300 hPa before the summer monsoon onset. This study supports these findings, and demonstrates that such a boundary layer structure is a consequence of the atmospheric thermal adaptation to the surface sensible heating, which vanishes quickly with increasing height. The overshooting of rising air, which is induced by surface sensible heating, then can form a layer of constant potential temperature with a thickness of several kilometers.

The thermal forcing of the TP on the lower tropospheric circulation looks like a sensible heat–driven air pump (SHAP). It is the surface sensible heating on the sloping sides of the plateau that the SHAP can effectively influence the Asian monsoon circulation. In spring the SHAP contributes to the seasonal abrupt change of the Asian circulation and anchors the earliest Asian summer monsoon onset over the eastern Bay of Bengal. In summer, this pumping, together with the thermal forcing over the Iranian Plateau, produces bimodality in the South Asian high activity in the upper troposphere, which is closely related to the climate anomaly patterns over South and East Asia. Because the isentropic surfaces in the middle and lower troposphere intersect with the TP, in summertime the plateau becomes a strong negative vorticity source of the atmosphere and affects the surrounding climate and even the Northern Hemispheric circulation via Rossby wave energy dispersion. Future prospects in related TP studies are also addressed.

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Robert G. Fovell, Yizhe Peggy Bu, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Wen-wen Tung, Yang Cao, Hung-Chi Kuo, Li-huan Hsu, and Hui Su

Abstract

The authors survey a series of modeling studies that have examined the influences that cloud microphysical processes can have on tropical cyclone (TC) motion, the strength and breadth of the wind field, inner-core diabatic heating asymmetries, outer-core convective activity, and the characteristics of the TC anvil cloud. These characteristics are sensitive to the microphysical parameterization (MP) in large part owing to the cloud-radiative forcing (CRF), the interaction of hydrometeors with radiation. The most influential component of CRF is that due to absorption and emission of longwave radiation in the anvil, which via gentle lifting directly encourages the more extensive convective activity that then leads to a radial expansion of the TC wind field. On a curved Earth, the magnitude of the outer winds helps determine the speed and direction of TC motion via the beta drift. CRF also influences TC motion by determining how convective asymmetries develop in the TC inner core. Further improvements in TC forecasting may require improved understanding and representation of cloud-radiative processes in operational models, and more comprehensive comparisons with observations are clearly needed.

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Boualem Khouider and Andrew J. Majda

Abstract

In this chapter, a model parameterization for organized tropical convection and convectively coupled tropical waves is presented. The model is based on the main three cloud types, congestus, deep, and stratiform, that are observed to play an important role in the dynamics and morphology of tropical convective systems. The model is based on the self-similarity across scales of tropical convective systems and uses physically sound theory about the mutual interactions between the three cloud types and the environment. Both linear analysis and numerical simulations of convectively coupled waves and the Madden–Julian oscillation are discussed.

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Andrew J. Majda and Samuel N. Stechmann

Abstract

It is well known that the envelope of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) consists of smaller-scale convective systems, including mesoscale convective systems (MCS), tropical cyclones, and synoptic-scale waves called “convectively coupled equatorial waves” (CCW). In fact, recent results suggest that the fundamental mechanisms of the MJO involve interactions between the synoptic-scale CCW and their larger-scale environment (Majda and Stechmann). In light of this, this chapter reviews recent and past work on two-way interactions between convective systems—both MCSs and CCW—and their larger-scale environment, with a particular focus given to recent work on MJO–CCW interactions.

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Baode Chen, Wen-wen Tung, and Michio Yanai

Abstract

The authors examined the maintenance mechanisms of perturbation kinetic energy (PKE) in the tropical regions for multiple time scales by computing and analyzing its budget equation. The emphasis has been placed on the mean features of synoptic and subseasonal variabilities using a 33-yr dataset. From analysis of the contributions from u-wind and υ-wind components, the PKE maximum in the Indian Ocean is attributed less to synoptic variability and more to intraseasonal variability in which the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) dominates; however, there is strong evidence of seasonal variability affiliated with the Asian monsoon systems. The ones in the eastern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans are closely related to both intraseasonal and synoptic variability that result from the strong MJO and the relatively large amplitude of equatorial waves.

The maintenance of the PKE budget mainly depends on the structure of time mean horizontal flows, the location of convection, and the transport of PKE from the extratropics. In the regions with strong convective activities, such as the eastern Indian Ocean to the western Pacific, the production of PKE occurs between 700 and 200 hPa at the expense of perturbation available potential energy (PAPE), which is generated by convective heating. This gain in PKE is largely offset by divergence of the geopotential component of vertical energy flux; that is, it is redistributed to the upper- and lower-atmospheric layers by the pressure field. Strong PKE generation through the horizontal convergence of the extratropical energy flux takes place in the upper troposphere over the eastern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, and is largely balanced by a PKE loss due to barotropic conversion, which is determined solely by the sign of longitudinal stretching deformation. However, over the Indian Ocean, there is a net PKE loss due to divergence of energy flux, which is compensated by PKE gain through the shear generation.

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Allison McComiskey and Richard A. Ferrare
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Beat Schmid, Robert G. Ellingson, and Greg M. McFarquhar
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Roger Marchand
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