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Akio Arakawa, Joon-Hee Jung, and Chien-Ming Wu

Abstract

One of the most important contributions of Michio Yanai to tropical meteorology is the introduction of the concepts of apparent heat source Q 1 and apparent moisture sink Q 2 in the large-scale heat and moisture budgets of the atmosphere. Through the inclusion of unresolved eddy effects, the vertical profiles of apparent sources (and sinks) are generally quite different from those of true sources taking place locally. In low-resolution models, such as the conventional general circulation models (GCMs), cumulus parameterization is supposed to determine the apparent sources for each grid cell from the explicitly predicted grid-scale processes. Because of the recent advancement of computer technology, however, increasingly higher horizontal resolutions are being used even for studying the global climate, and, therefore, the concept of apparent sources must be expanded rather drastically. Specifically, the simulated apparent sources should approach and eventually converge to the true sources as the horizontal resolution is refined. For this transition to take place, the conventional cumulus parameterization must be either generalized so that it is applicable to any horizontal resolutions or replaced with the mean effects of cloud-scale processes explicitly simulated by a cloud-resolving model (CRM). These two approaches are called ROUTE I and ROUTE II for unifying low- and high-resolution models, respectively. This chapter discusses the conceptual and technical problems in exploring these routes and reviews the authors’ recent work on these subjects.

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Gerald M. Stokes
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M. Haeffelin, S. Crewell, A. J. Illingworth, G. Pappalardo, H. Russchenberg, M. Chiriaco, K. Ebell, R. J. Hogan, and F. Madonna
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Guang J. Zhang and Xiaoliang Song

Abstract

The microphysical processes inside convective clouds play an important role in climate. They directly control the amount of detrainment of cloud hydrometeor and water vapor from updrafts. The detrained water substance in turn affects the anvil cloud formation, upper-tropospheric water vapor distribution, and thus the atmospheric radiation budget. In global climate models, convective parameterization schemes have not explicitly represented microphysics processes in updrafts until recently. In this paper, the authors provide a review of existing schemes for convective microphysics parameterization. These schemes are broadly divided into three groups: tuning-parameter-based schemes (simplest), single-moment schemes, and two-moment schemes (most comprehensive). Common weaknesses of the tuning-parameter-based and single-moment schemes are outlined. Examples are presented from one of the two-moment schemes to demonstrate the performance of the scheme in simulating the hydrometeor distribution in convection and its representation of the effect of aerosols on convection.

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Thomas P. Ackerman, Ted S. Cress, Wanda R. Ferrell, James H. Mather, and David D. Turner
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Taroh Matsuno

This volume consists of some papers presented at the AMS Symposium held to honor the memory of the late Professor Michio Yanai as well as additional works inspired by his research. By the nature of this volume, many of the contributed papers describe the development of tropical meteorology over the past half-century or so in connection with Professor Yanai’s influence on it. While most of the chapters address specific areas and discuss timely issues, in this prologue I will describe some of Professor Yanai’s contributions during the early period of his career from my own point of view. As this is a personal reminiscence, I would like to emphasize how Professor Yanai influenced me.

Both Professor Yanai and I became graduate students at the University of Tokyo to begin our career as meteorologists in 1956 and 1957, respectively. Since we studied and worked together so closely for a long time, in this article I will call him Yanai-san as I have done in our personal interactions.

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J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, and T. P. Ackerman
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Minghua Zhang, Richard C. J. Somerville, and Shaocheng Xie
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David Randall, Charlotte DeMott, Cristiana Stan, Marat Khairoutdinov, James Benedict, Rachel McCrary, Katherine Thayer-Calder, and Mark Branson

Abstract

Cloud processes play a central role in the dynamics of the tropical atmosphere, but for many years the shortcomings of cloud parameterizations have limited our ability to simulate and understand important tropical weather systems such as the Madden–Julian oscillation. Since about 2001, “superparameterization” has emerged as a new path forward, complementing but not replacing studies based on conventional parameterizations. This chapter provides an overview of work with superparameterization, including a discussion of the method itself and a summary of key results.

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Steven K. Esbensen, Jan-Hwa Chu, Wen-wen Tung, and Robert G. Fovell

Abstract

This monograph on convection-coupled systems in the tropics was inspired by the life and career of Professor Michio Yanai, whose major contributions to the subject spanned more than five decades. From a distant perspective, Professor Yanai’s career can be understood in the context of Japanese scientists who immigrated to the United States in the decades of the 1950s and 1960s, enriching the meteorological research community in the United States as well as abroad (). A closer look reminds us that the tapestry of scientific progress is created by the contributions of individual scientists with their unique backgrounds, motivations, and talents, and the serendipity of events that shape their lives.

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