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Sopia Lestari
Alain Protat
Valentin Louf
Andrew King
Claire Vincent
, and
Shuichi Mori


Jakarta, a megacity in Indonesia, experiences recurrent floods associated with heavy rainfall. Characteristics of subdaily rainfall and the local factors influencing rainfall around Jakarta have not been thoroughly investigated, primarily because of data limitations. In this study, we examine the frequency and intensity of hourly and daily rain rate, including spatial characteristics and variations across time scales. We use 6-min C-band Doppler radar and 1-min in situ data during 2009–12 to resolve spatial rain-rate characteristics at higher resolution than previous studies. A reflectivity–rain rate (Z–R) relationship is derived (Z = 102.7R 1.75) and applied to estimate hourly rain rate. Our results show that rain rate around Jakarta is spatially inhomogeneous. In the rainy season [December–February (DJF)], rain rate exhibits statistical properties markedly different from other seasons, with much higher frequency of rain, but, on average, less intense rain rate. In all seasons, there is a persistent higher hourly and daily mean rain rate found over mountainous areas, indicating the importance of local orographic effects. In contrast, for hourly rain-rate extremes, peaks are observed mostly over the coastal land and lowland areas. For the diurnal cycle of mean rain rate, a distinct afternoon peak is found developing earlier in DJF and later in the dry season. This study has implications for other analyses of mesoscale rain-rate extremes in areas of complex topography and suggests that coarse-grain products may miss major features of the rain-rate variability identified in our study.

Significance Statement

For many years, Jakarta and its surrounding regions have been repeatedly inundated by flooding triggered by short-duration heavy rainfall or rainfall accumulated over multiple days. Little is known about the distribution of local rainfall and how it differs between seasons. In this study, we used high-resolution C-band Doppler radar during 2009–12 to understand the characteristics of rainfall over this complex topography. The results demonstrate that the rainfall features vary spatially and seasonally. In the wet season, rainfall is more frequent but, on average, lighter relative to other seasons. In all seasons, the highest hourly and daily mean rain rate persistently occurs over the mountains, indicating the vital role of topography in generating rainfall in the region.

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Andung Bayu Sekaranom
Hirohiko Masunaga


Properties of the rain estimation differences between Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) 2A25, TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) 2A12, and TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B42 are investigated with a focus on distinguishing between nonextreme and extreme rains over the Maritime Continent from 1998 to 2014. Statistical analyses of collocated TMI 1B11 85-GHz polarization-corrected brightness temperatures, PR 2A23 storm-top heights, and PR 2A25 vertical rain profiles are conducted to identify possible sources of the differences. The results indicate that a large estimation difference exists between PR and TMI for the general rain rate (extreme and nonextreme events). The PR–TMI rain-rate differences are larger over land and coast than over ocean. When extreme rain is isolated, a higher frequency of occurrence is identified by PR over ocean, followed by TMI and TMPA. Over land, TMI yields higher rain frequencies than PR with an intermediate range of rain rates (between 15 and 25 mm h−1), but it gives way to PR for the highest extremes. The turnover at the highest rain rates arises because the heaviest rain depicted by PR does not necessarily accompany the strongest ice-scattering signals, which TMI relies on for estimating precipitation over land and coast.

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