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  • Air–Sea Interactions from the Diurnal to the Intraseasonal during the PISTON, MISOBOB, and CAMP2Ex Observational Campaigns in the Tropics x
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Benjamin C. Trabing and Michael M. Bell


A growing body of work has documented the existence of diurnal oscillations in the tropical cyclone outflow layer. These diurnal pulses have been examined primarily using satellites or numerical models, and detailed full tropospheric observations or case study analyses of diurnal pulses are lacking. Questions remain on the vertical extent of diurnal pulses and whether diurnal pulses are coupled to convective bands or constrained to the outflow layer. During the Propagation of Intraseasonal Tropical Oscillations (PISTON) field campaign, diurnal oscillations in the upper-level clouds were observed during Typhoon Kong-rey’s (2018) rapid intensification. Over a 3.5-day period where a broad distribution of cold upper-level clouds was overhead, detailed observations of Typhoon Kong-rey’s rainbands show that convection had reduced echo tops but enhanced reflectivity and differential reflectivity aloft compared to other observations during PISTON. Shortwave heating in the upper levels increased the stability profile in an overall favorable thermodynamic environment for convection during the day, which could help to explain the diurnal differences in convective structure. Under the cirrus canopy, nocturnal convection was deeper and daytime convection shallower in contrast to the rest of the PISTON dataset. Diurnal oscillations in the brightness temperatures were found to be coupled to radially outward propagating convective rainbands that were preceded ~6 h by outflow jets. The cooling pulses occurred earlier than found in previous studies. The pulses were asymmetric spatially, which is likely due to a combination of the vertical wind shear and storm intensity.

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Kyle Chudler, Weixin Xu, and Steven A. Rutledge


During the boreal summer, satellite-based precipitation estimates indicate a distinct maximum in rainfall off the west coast of the island of Luzon in the Philippines. Also occurring during the summer months is the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO), a main driver of intraseasonal variability in the region. This study investigates the diurnal variability of convective intensity, morphology, and precipitation coverage offshore and over the island of Luzon. The results are then composited by BSISO activity. Results of this study indicate that offshore precipitation is markedly increased during active BSISO phases, when strong low-level southwesterly monsoon winds bring increased moisture and enhanced convergence upwind of the island’s high terrain. A key finding of this work is the existence of an afternoon maximum in convection over Luzon even during active BSISO phases, when solar heating and instability are apparently reduced due to enhanced cloud cover. This result is important, as previous studies have shown in other areas of the tropics afternoon convection over landmasses is a key component to offshore precipitation. Although offshore precipitation is maximized in the evening hours during active phases, results indicate that precipitation frequently occurs over the ocean around the clock (both as organized systems and isolated, shallow showers), possibly owing to an increase in sensible and latent heat fluxes, vertical wind shear, and convergence of the monsoon flow with land features.

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