Browse

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for :

  • Journal of Physical Oceanography x
  • Air–Sea Interactions from the Diurnal to the Intraseasonal during the PISTON, MISOBOB, and CAMP2Ex Observational Campaigns in the Tropics x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All
Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

Abstract

Penetration of solar radiation in the upper few meters of the ocean creates a near-surface, stratified diurnal warm layer. Wind stress accelerates a diurnal jet in this layer. Turbulence generated at the diurnal thermocline, where the shear of the diurnal jet is concentrated, redistributes heat downward via mixing. New measurements of temperature and turbulence from fast thermistors on a surface-following platform depict the details of this sequence in both time and depth. Temporally, the sequence at a fixed depth follows a counterclockwise path in logϵ–logN parameter space. This path also captures the evolution of buoyancy Reynolds number (a proxy for the anisotropy of the turbulence) and Ozmidov scale (a proxy for the outer vertical length scale of turbulence in the absence of the free surface). Vertically, the solar heat flux always leads to heating of fluid parcels in the upper few meters, whereas the turbulent heat flux divergence changes sign across the depth of maximum vertical temperature gradient, cooling fluid parcels above and heating fluid parcels below. In general, our measurements of fluid parcel heating or cooling rates of order 0.1°C h−1 are consistent with our estimates of heat flux divergence. In weak winds (<2 m s−1), sea surface temperature (SST) is controlled by the depth-dependent absorption of solar radiation. In stronger winds, turbulent mixing controls SST.

Restricted access
Jai Sukhatme, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Jennifer MacKinnon, S. Shivaprasad, and Debasis Sengupta

Abstract

Horizontal currents in the Bay of Bengal were measured on eight cruises covering a total of 8600 km using a 300-kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The cruises are distributed over multiple seasons and regions of the Bay. Horizontal wavenumber spectra of these currents over depths of 12–54 m and wavelengths from 2 to 400 km were decomposed into rotational and divergent components assuming isotropy. An average of across- and along-track spectra over all cruises shows that the spectral slope of horizontal kinetic energy for wavelengths of 10–80-km scales with an exponent of −1.7 ± 0.05, which transitions to a steeper slope for wavelengths above 80 km. The rotational component is significantly larger than the divergent component at scales greater than 80 km, while the ratio of the two is nearly constant with a mean of 1.16 ± 0.4 between 10 and 80 km. The measurements show a fair amount of variability and spectral levels vary between cruises by about a factor of 5 over 10–100 km. Velocity differences over 10–80 km show probability density functions and structure functions with stretched exponential behavior and anomalous scaling. Comparisons with the Garrett–Munk internal wave spectrum indicate that inertia–gravity waves account for only a modest fraction of the kinetic energy between 10 and 80 km. These constraints suggest that the near-surface flow in the Bay is primarily balanced and follows a forward enstrophy transfer quasigeostrophic regime for wavelengths greater than approximately 80 km, with a larger role for unbalanced rotating stratified turbulence and internal waves at smaller scales.

Free access
Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

Abstract

The daily formation of near-surface ocean stratification caused by penetrating solar radiation modifies heat fluxes through the air–sea interface, turbulence dissipation in the mixed layer, and the vertical profile of lateral transport. The transport is altered because momentum from wind is trapped in a thin near-surface layer, the diurnal warm layer. We investigate the dynamics of this layer, with particular attention to the vertical shear of horizontal velocity. We first develop a quantitative link between the near-surface shear components that relates the crosswind component to the inertial turning of the along-wind component. Three days of high-resolution velocity observations confirm this relation. Clear colocation of shear and stratification with Richardson numbers near 0.25 indicate marginal instability. Idealized numerical modeling is then invoked to extrapolate below the observed wind speeds. This modeling, together with a simple energetic scaling analysis, provides a rule of thumb that the diurnal shear evolves differently above and below a 2 m s−1 wind speed, with limited sensitivity of this threshold to latitude and mean net surface heat flux. Only above this wind speed is the energy input sufficient to overcome the stabilizing buoyancy flux and thereby induce marginal instability. The differing shear regimes explain differences in the timing and magnitude of diurnal sea surface temperature anomalies.

Free access
D. A. Cherian, E. L. Shroyer, H. W. Wijesekera, and J. N. Moum

Abstract

We describe the seasonal cycle of mixing in the top 30–100 m of the Bay of Bengal as observed by moored mixing meters (χpods) deployed along 8°N between 85.5° and 88.5°E in 2014 and 2015. All χpod observations were combined to form seasonal-mean vertical profiles of turbulence diffusivity K T in the top 100 m. The strongest turbulence is observed during the southwest and postmonsoon seasons, that is, between July and November. The northeast monsoon (December–February) is a period of similarly high mean K T but an order of magnitude lower median K T, a sign of energetic episodic mixing events forced by near-inertial shear events. The months of March and April, a period of weak wind forcing and low near-inertial shear amplitude, are characterized by near-molecular values of K T in the thermocline for weeks at a time. Strong mixing events coincide with the passage of surface-forced downward-propagating near-inertial waves and with the presence of enhanced low-frequency shear associated with the Summer Monsoon Current and other mesoscale features between July and October. This seasonal cycle of mixing is consequential. We find that monthly averaged turbulent transport of salt out of the salty Arabian Sea water between August and January is significant relative to local EP. The magnitude of this salt flux is approximately that required to close model-based salt budgets for the upper Bay of Bengal.

Free access
Sebastian Essink, Verena Hormann, Luca R. Centurioni, and Amala Mahadevan

Abstract

A cluster of 45 drifters deployed in the Bay of Bengal is tracked for a period of four months. Pair dispersion statistics, from observed drifter trajectories and simulated trajectories based on surface geostrophic velocity, are analyzed as a function of drifter separation and time. Pair dispersion suggests nonlocal dynamics at submesoscales of 1–20 km, likely controlled by the energetic mesoscale eddies present during the observations. Second-order velocity structure functions and their Helmholtz decomposition, however, suggest local dispersion and divergent horizontal flow at scales below 20 km. This inconsistency cannot be explained by inertial oscillations alone, as has been reported in recent studies, and is likely related to other nondispersive processes that impact structure functions but do not enter pair dispersion statistics. At scales comparable to the deformation radius L D, which is approximately 60 km, we find dynamics in agreement with Richardson’s law and observe local dispersion in both pair dispersion statistics and second-order velocity structure functions.

Full access
Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

Abstract

Cyclone Phailin, which developed over the Bay of Bengal in October 2013, was one of the strongest tropical cyclones to make landfall in India. We study the response of the salinity-stratified north Bay of Bengal to Cyclone Phailin with the help of hourly observations from three open-ocean moorings 200 km from the cyclone track, a mooring close to the cyclone track, daily sea surface salinity (SSS) from Aquarius, and a one-dimensional model. Before the arrival of Phailin, moored observations showed a shallow layer of low-salinity water lying above a deep, warm “barrier” layer. As the winds strengthened, upper-ocean mixing due to enhanced vertical shear of storm-generated currents led to a rapid increase of near-surface salinity. Sea surface temperature (SST) cooled very little, however, because the prestorm subsurface ocean was warm. Aquarius SSS increased by 1.5–3 psu over an area of nearly one million square kilometers in the north Bay of Bengal. A one-dimensional model, with initial conditions and surface forcing based on moored observations, shows that cyclone winds rapidly eroded the shallow, salinity-dominated density stratification and mixed the upper ocean to 40–50-m depth, consistent with observations. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that changes in ocean mixed layer temperature in response to Cyclone Phailin are small. A nearly isothermal, salinity-stratified barrier layer in the prestorm upper ocean has two effects. First, near-surface density stratification reduces the depth of vertical mixing. Second, mixing is confined to the nearly isothermal layer, resulting in little or no SST cooling.

Full access