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Ligia Bernardet
,
Lisa Bengtsson
,
Patrick A. Reinecke
,
Fanglin Yang
,
Man Zhang
,
Kyle Hall
,
James Doyle
,
Matus Martini
,
Grant Firl
, and
Lulin Xue

Abstract

The Common Community Physics Package (CCPP) is a state-of-the-art infrastructure designed to facilitate community-wide development of atmospheric physics parameterizations, support their interoperability among different modeling centers, and enable the transition of research to operations in NWP and climate modeling. The CCPP consists of two elements: the Physics (a repository of parameterizations) and the Framework (an infrastructure for interfacing the parameterizations with host models). The CCPP is a community resource: its latest release has 23 primary parameterizations, which can be organized into six supported suites. It is distributed with a single-column model to facilitate physics development and experimentation. The Developmental Testbed Center provides support to users and developers. A key aspect of the CCPP is its interoperability, that is, its ability to be used by multiple host models. This enables synergistic collaboration among groups dispersed over various institutions and working on various models. In this article we provide an overview of the CCPP and how it is being used in two leading modeling systems. The CCPP is part of the Unified Forecast System (UFS), is included in the NOAA operational Hurricane Analysis and Forecast System (HAFS) version one, and is slated for use in all upcoming NOAA global and limited-area UFS applications for operations. Similarly, the CCPP has been integrated into the Navy Environmental Prediction System Using a Nonhydrostatic Engine (NEPTUNE) model and is undergoing testing for upcoming transition to operations. These experiences make physics interoperability a reality and open the doors for much broader collaborative efforts on ESM development.

Open access
A. R. Siders
and
Dana Veron
Open access
Russell C. Schnell
and
Gabor Vali

Abstract

In Part I, we described the discoveries we and our associates made in the 1960s and 1970s about biological ice nucleating particles (bio-INPs). The bio-INPs are far more effective than mineral INPs at temperatures above −10°C. The bio-INPs were found in decayed vegetation and in ocean water, and then, bacteria were identified as being the most active source for this remarkable activity. In this Part II, we recount how, within a few years, the worldwide distribution of bio-INP sources was shown to correlate with climate zones, as was the abundance of INPs in precipitation. Oceanic sources were further studied, and the presence of bio-INPs in fog diagnosed. The potential for release of bio-INPs from the ground to the atmosphere was demonstrated. Bacterial INPs were found to play a crucial role in a plant’s frost resistance. These and other early developments of biological INPs are described. A bibliography of related recent literature is presented in the online supplemental material (https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-23-0114.s1).

Open access
Christopher P. McKay
and
Mateo N. Cintron

Abstract

The thermal equator (also known as the heat equator) is the circumplanetary set of points that represent the highest mean annual temperature at each longitude. Recent high precision global datasets for Earth and Mars provide a basis for a detailed calculation of the thermal equator on these worlds. On Earth, the temperature values that comprise the thermal equator range from 25.85° to 34.75°C, with a mean of 27.75° ± 1.3°C, and extends in latitude as high as 20°N in Mexico and 29.3°N in the Indian subcontinent. The maximum southern extent is 20°S in Australia. On Mars, lacking oceans, the thermal equator takes a simpler track and is roughly parallel to the equator, and displaced 5°–10°S. However, there is a region of longitude on Mars where the thermal equator becomes bimodal with a northern branch centered at 10°N and a southern branch centered at 20°S.

Open access
Martin Radenz
,
Ronny Engelmann
,
Silvia Henning
,
Holger Schmithüsen
,
Holger Baars
,
Markus M. Frey
,
Rolf Weller
,
Johannes Bühl
,
Cristofer Jimenez
,
Johanna Roschke
,
Lukas Ole Muser
,
Nellie Wullenweber
,
Sebastian Zeppenfeld
,
Hannes Griesche
,
Ulla Wandinger
, and
Patric Seifert

Abstract

Novel observations of aerosol and clouds by means of ground-based remote sensing have been performed in Antarctica over the Ekström ice shelf on the coast of Dronning Maud Land at Neumayer Station III (70.67°S, 8.27°W) from January to December 2023. The deployment of OCEANET-Atmosphere remote-sensing observatory in the framework of the Continuous Observations of Aerosol-cLoud interAction (COALA) campaign brought ACTRIS aerosol and cloud profiling capabilities next to meteorological and air chemistry in-situ observations at the Antarctic station. We present an overview of the site, the instrumental setup and data analysis strategy and introduce 3 scientific highlights from austral fall and winter, namely: 1. Observations of a persistent mixed-phase cloud embedded in a plume of marine aerosol. Remote-sensing-based retrievals of cloud-relevant aerosol properties and cloud microphysical parameters confirm that the free-tropospheric mixed phase cloud layer formed in an aerosol-limited environment. 2. Two extraordinary warm air intrusions. One with intense snowfall produced the equivalent of 10% of the yearly snow accumulation, a second one with record-breaking maximum temperatures and heavy icing due to supercooled drizzle. 3. Omnipresent aerosol layers in the stratosphere. Our profiling capabilities could show that 50% of the 500-nm aerosol optical depth of 0.06 was caused by stratospheric aerosol, while the troposphere was usually pristine. As demonstrated by these highlights, the one-year COALA observations will serve as a reference dataset for the vertical structure of aerosol and clouds above the region, enabling future observational and modeling studies to advance understanding of atmospheric processes in Antarctica.

Open access
Richard A. Anthes
,
Christian Marquardt
,
Benjamin Ruston
, and
Hui Shao

Abstract

The international radio occultation (RO) community is conducting a collaborative effort to explore the impact of a large number of RO observations on numerical weather prediction (NWP). This effort, the Radio Occultation Modeling Experiment (ROMEX), has been endorsed by the International Radio Occultation Working Group, a scientific working group under the auspices of the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS).

ROMEX seeks to inform strategies for future RO missions and acquisitions. ROMEX is planned to consist of at least one three-month period during which all available RO data are collected, processed, archived, and made available to the global community free of charge for research and testing. Although the primary purpose is to test the impact of varying numbers of RO observations on NWP, the three months of RO observations during the first ROMEX period (ROMEX-1, September-November 2022) will be a rich data set for research on many atmospheric phenomena.

The RO data providers have sent their data to EUMETSAT for processing. The total number of RO profiles averages between 30,000 and 40,000 per day for ROMEX-1. The processed data (phase, bending angle, refractivity, temperature, and water vapor) will be distributed to ROMEX participants by the Radio Occultation Meteorology Satellite Applications Facility (ROM SAF). The data will also be processed independently by the UCAR COSMIC Data Analysis and Archive Center (CDAAC) and available via ROM SAF. The data are freely available to all participants who agree to the conditions that the providers be acknowledged and the data are not used for commercial or operational purposes.

Open access
Alberto Troccoli
,
Tobias Fuchs
,
Roberta Boscolo
,
Elah Matt
, and
Hamid Bastani

Abstract

Weather and Climate Services (W&CS) are key to supporting the transition to net-zero emissions in the energy sector. These services are utilised to increase energy system resilience, enhance renewable energy deployment, and enable uptake of energy-efficiency measures and innovations. As energy systems become increasingly dependent on and affected by weather and climatic conditions, integrating weather and climate data into energy management systems is essential.

This paper addresses the gap in comprehensive guidance for developing integrated W&CS to support net-zero energy transitions, drawing upon a report by the World Meteorological Organization’s Services Commission Study Group on Integrated Energy Services (WMO 2023). We present a framework for co-production of W&CS, exploring how the uptake of W&CS for energy transitions can be enabled through evaluation of socio-economic benefits, harnessing business models, identification of key policies, and capacity development measures.

To support the uptake of W&CS for net-zero energy transitions we recommend: a deeper understanding of user needs and requirements; continuous advancements in the science and technology of W&CS; effective integration of weather and climate data within energy conversion models; improved accessibility and sharing of meteorological and, especially, energy data; promotion of co-production approaches; exploration of novel applications of W&CS in the energy sector; refinement of business models for sustainable W&CS delivery; execution of capacity-building activities; enhanced communication among stakeholders and strengthened collaborative efforts. These steps are crucial for realizing the full potential of W&CS in driving the energy sector towards a sustainable, net-zero future.

Open access
E. Katragkou
,
S. P. Sobolowski
,
C. Teichmann
,
F. Solmon
,
V. Pavlidis
,
D. Rechid
,
P. Hoffmann
,
J. Fernandez
,
G. Nikulin
, and
D. Jacob

Abstract

The Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) is a coordinated international activity that has produced ensembles of regional climate simulations with domains that cover all land areas of the world. These ensembles are used by a wide range of practitioners that include the scientific community, policymakers, and stakeholders from the public and private sectors. They also provide the scientific basis for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-Assessment Reports. As its next phase now launches, the CMIP6-CORDEX datasets are expected to populate community repositories over the next couple of years, with updated state-of-the-art regional climate data that will further support national and regional communities and inform their climate adaptation and mitigation strategies. The protocol presented here focuses on the European domain (EURO-CORDEX). It takes the international CORDEX protocol covering all 14 global domains as its template. However, it expands on the international protocol in specific areas; incorporates historical and projected aerosol trends into the regional models in a consistent way with CMIP6 global climate models, to allow for a better comparison of global versus regional trends; produces more climate variables to better support sectorial climate impact assessments; and takes into account the recent scientific developments addressed in the CORDEX Flagship Pilot Studies, enabling a better assessment of processes and phenomena relevant to regional climate (e.g., land-use change, aerosol, convection, and urban environment). Here, we summarize the scientific analysis which led to the new simulation protocol and highlight the improvements we expect in the new generation regional climate ensemble.

Open access
Detlef Stammer
,
Daniel E. Amrhein
,
Magdalena Alonso Balmaseda
,
Laurent Bertino
,
Massimo Bonavita
,
Carlo Buontempo
,
Nico Caltabiano
,
Francois Counillon
,
Ian Fenty
,
Raffaele Ferrari
,
Yosuke Fujii
,
Shreyas Sunil Gaikwad
,
Pierre Gentine
,
Andrew Gettelman
,
Ganesh Gopalakrishnan
,
Patrick Heimbach
,
Hans Hersbach
,
Chris Hill
,
Shinya Kobayashi
,
Armin Köhl
,
Paul J. Kushner
,
Matthew Mazloff
,
Hisashi Nakamura
,
Stephen G. Penny
,
Laura Slivinski
,
Susann Tegtmeier
, and
Laure Zanna
Open access
Jiali Wang
,
Georgios Deskos
,
William J. Pringle
,
Sue Ellen Haupt
,
Sha Feng
,
Larry K. Berg
,
Matt Churchfield
,
Mrinal Biswas
,
Walter Musial
,
Paytsar Muradyan
,
Eric Hendricks
,
Rao Kotamarthi
,
Pengfei Xue
,
Christopher M. Rozoff
, and
George Bryan
Open access