Browse

You are looking at 11 - 18 of 18 items for :

  • 16th International Symposium for the Advancement of Boundary-Layer Remote Sensing (ISARS 2012) x
  • All content x
Clear All
Jacob Berg, Jakob Mann, and Edward G. Patton

Abstract

This study demonstrates that a pulsed wind lidar is a reliable instrument for measuring angles between horizontal vectors of significance in the atmospheric boundary layer. Three different angles are considered: the wind turning, the angle between the stress vector and the mean wind direction, and the angle between the stress vector and the vertical gradient of the mean velocity vector. The latter is assumed to be zero by the often applied turbulent-viscosity hypothesis, so that the stress vector can be described through the vertical gradient of velocity. In the atmospheric surface layer, where the Coriolis force is negligible, this is supposedly a good approximation. High-resolution large-eddy simulation data show that this is indeed the case even beyond the surface layer. In contrast, through analysis of WindCube lidar measurements supported by sonic measurements, the study shows that it is only valid very close to the surface. The deviation may be significant even at 100 m. This behavior is attributed to mesoscale effects.

Full access
Margarita A. Kallistratova, Rostislav D. Kouznetsov, Valerii F. Kramar, and Dmitrii D. Kuznetsov

Abstract

Continuous sodar measurements of wind profiles have been carried out at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station of the Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics since 2008. The station is located in a slightly inhomogeneous rural area about 45 km west of Moscow, Russia. The data were used to determine the parameters of wind and turbulence within low-level jets in the stable atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Along with the mean velocity profiles, the profiles of variances of wind speed components from the sodar and the profiles of temperature from a microwave radiometer have been used to quantify turbulence and thermal stratification. Data from two sonic anemometers were used to get the near-surface parameters.

The typical standard deviation of the vertical wind component σw within the low-level jet is about 5% of the maximum wind speed in the jet. No noticeable vertical variation of σw across the jets was detected in several earlier sodar campaigns, and it was not found in the present study. An increase in horizontal variances was detected in zones of substantial wind shear, which agrees with earlier published lidar data.

Quasi-periodic structures in the sodar return signal, which appear in sodar echograms as braid-shaped patterns, were found to emerge preferably when a substantial increase of wind shear occurs at the top of the stable ABL. The braid patterns in the sodar echograms were not accompanied by any noticeable increase of observed σw, which disagrees with earlier data and indicates that such patterns may originate from various phenomena.

Full access
Qing Yang, Larry K. Berg, Mikhail Pekour, Jerome D. Fast, Rob K. Newsom, Mark Stoelinga, and Catherine Finley

Abstract

One challenge with wind-power forecasts is the accurate prediction of rapid changes in wind speed (ramps). To evaluate the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model's ability to predict such events, model simulations, conducted over an area of complex terrain in May 2011, are used. The sensitivity of the model's performance to the choice among three planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes [Mellor–Yamada–Janjić (MYJ), University of Washington (UW), and Yonsei University (YSU)] is investigated. The simulated near-hub-height winds (62 m), vertical wind speed profiles, and ramps are evaluated against measurements obtained from tower-mounted anemometers, a Doppler sodar, and a radar wind profiler deployed during the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study (CBWES). The predicted winds at near–hub height have nonnegligible biases in monthly mean under stable conditions. Under stable conditions, the simulation with the UW scheme better predicts upward ramps and the MYJ scheme is the most successful in simulating downward ramps. Under unstable conditions, simulations using the YSU and UW schemes show good performance in predicting upward ramps and downward ramps, with the YSU scheme being slightly better at predicting ramps with durations longer than 1 h. The largest differences in mean wind speed profiles among simulations using the three PBL schemes occur during upward ramps under stable conditions, which were frequently associated with low-level jets. The UW scheme has the best overall performance in ramp prediction over the CBWES site when evaluated using prediction accuracy and capture-rate statistics, but no single PBL parameterization is clearly superior to the others when all atmospheric conditions are considered.

Full access
C. R. Wood, R. D. Kouznetsov, R. Gierens, A. Nordbo, L. Järvi, M. A. Kallistratova, and J. Kukkonen

Abstract

Two commercial large-aperture scintillometers, Scintec BLS900, were tested on pathlengths of 1840 and 4200 m at about 45–65 m above ground in Helsinki, Finland. From July 2011 through June 2012, large variability in diurnal and annual cycles of both the temperature structure parameter and sensible heat flux were observed. Scintillometer data were compared with data from two eddy-covariance stations. A robust method was developed for the calculation of from raw sonic-anemometer data. In contrast to many earlier studies that solely present the values of , the main focus here is on comparisons of itself. This has advantages, because optical-wavelength scintillometers measure with few assumptions, while the determination of implies the applicability of the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory, which has several inherent limitations. The histograms of compare well between sonic and scintillometer. In-depth analysis is focused on one of the scintillometer paths: both and comparisons gave similar and surprisingly high correlation coefficients (0.85 for and 0.84–0.95 for in unstable conditions), given the differences between the two measurement techniques, substantial sensor separation, and different source areas.

Full access
A. B. White, M. L. Anderson, M. D. Dettinger, F. M. Ralph, A. Hinojosa, D. R. Cayan, R. K. Hartman, D. W. Reynolds, L. E. Johnson, T. L. Schneider, R. Cifelli, Z. Toth, S. I. Gutman, C. W. King, F. Gehrke, P. E. Johnston, C. Walls, D. Mann, D. J. Gottas, and T. Coleman

Abstract

During Northern Hemisphere winters, the West Coast of North America is battered by extratropical storms. The impact of these storms is of paramount concern to California, where aging water supply and flood protection infrastructures are challenged by increased standards for urban flood protection, an unusually variable weather regime, and projections of climate change. Additionally, there are inherent conflicts between releasing water to provide flood protection and storing water to meet requirements for the water supply, water quality, hydropower generation, water temperature and flow for at-risk species, and recreation. To improve reservoir management and meet the increasing demands on water, improved forecasts of precipitation, especially during extreme events, are required. Here, the authors describe how California is addressing their most important and costliest environmental issue—water management—in part, by installing a state-of-the-art observing system to better track the area’s most severe wintertime storms.

Full access
Valery M. Melnikov, Richard J. Doviak, Dusan S. Zrnić, and David J. Stensrud

Abstract

Enhancements to signal processing and data collection in the dual-polarization Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) to increase its detection capability yield observations of “fine” structures from Bragg scatterers. Several types of the fine structures observed in and above the boundary layer are discussed. These Bragg scatter structures include the top of the convective boundary layer, nonprecipitating clouds, strong convective plumes above the boundary layer, and a layer of weak reflections associated with decaying boundary layer turbulence. A conclusion that data from polarimetric WSR-88Ds can be used to obtain the depth of the convective boundary layer is made.

Full access
S.-E. Gryning, E. Batchvarova, and R. Floors

Abstract

By use of 1 yr of measurements performed with a wind lidar up to 600-m height, in combination with a tall meteorological tower, the impact of nudging on the simulated wind profile at a flat coastal site (Høvsøre) in western Denmark using the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is studied. It was found that the mean wind speed, the wind direction change with height, and the wind power density profiles are underestimated with the configuration of WRF used and that the impact of nudging on the simulated mean values was minor. Nudging was found to reduce the scatter between the simulated and measured wind speeds, expressed by the root-mean-square error, by about 20% between altitudes of 100 and 500 m. The root-mean-square error was nearly constant with height for the nudged case (~2.2 m s−1) and slightly increased with height for the nonnudged one, reaching 2.8 m s−1 at 300 and 500 m. In studying the long-term wind speed variability with the Weibull distribution, it was found that nudging had a minor effect on the scale parameter profile, which is closely connected to the mean wind speed. Improvement by nudging was seen on the profile of the shape parameter. Without nudging, the shape parameter was underestimated at all heights; with nudging, the agreement was good up to about 100 m and above that height the shape parameter was underestimated.

Full access
Rostislav Kouznetsov, Priit Tisler, Timo Palo, and Timo Vihma

Abstract

The three-axis “Latan-3” Doppler sodar was operated near the Finnish Antarctic station Aboa in Dronning Maud Land (73.04°S, 13.40°W) in the austral summer of 2010/11. The measuring site is located at a practically flat, slightly sloped (about 1%) surface of the glacier. The sodar was operated in multiple-frequency parallel mode with 20–800-m sounding range, 20-m vertical resolution, and 10-s temporal resolution. To reveal the wind and temperature profiles below the sounding range as well as turbulent fluxes at 2 and 10 m, the data from a 10-m meteorological mast were used. During the measurements, the atmospheric boundary layer was within the sounding range of the sodar most of the time. Despite a large variety of observed sodar echo patterns and wind speed profiles, several cases of clear steady katabatic flows were observed. Practically all of them were easterly, whereas the uphill direction is southern. The thickness of the katabatic flow varied from a few tens to several hundreds of meters; the wind speed maximum could be as low as 5 m. Thin katabatic flows had lower wind speed and much stronger temperature gradients (up to 1 K m−1) but had smaller surface heat flux than did the thicker ones.

Full access