Browse

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 118,004 items for

  • All content x
Clear All
Shi-Xin Wang, Hong-Chao Zuo, Fen Sun, Li-Yang Wu, Yixing Yin, and Jing-Jia Luo

Abstract

Dynamics of the East Asian spring rainband are investigated with a reanalysis dataset and station observations. Here, it is revealed that the rainband is anchored by external forcings. The midtropospheric jet core stays quasi-stationary around Japan. It has two branches in its entry region, which originate from the south and north flanks of the Tibetan Plateau and then run northeastward and southeastward, respectively. The southern branch advects warm air from the Tibetan–Hengduan Plateau northeastward, forming a rainband over southern China through causing adiabatic ascent motion and triggering diabatic feedback. The rainband is much stronger in spring than in autumn due to the stronger diabatic heating over the Tibetan–Hengduan Plateau, a more southward-displaced midtropospheric jet, and the resulting stronger warm advection over southern China. The northern jet branch forms a zonally elongated cold advection belt, which reaches a maximum around northern China, and then weakens and extends eastward to east of Japan. The westerly jet also steers strong disturbance activities roughly collocated with the cold advection belt via baroclinic instability. The high disturbance activities belt causes large cumulative warm advection (CWA) through drastically increasing extremely warm advection days on its eastern and south flanks, where weak cold advection prevails. CWA is more essential for monthly/seasonally rainfall than conventionally used time-average temperature advection because it is shown that strengthened warm advection can increase rainfall through positive diabatic feedback, while cold advection cannot cause negative rainfall. Thus, the rainband is collocated with the large CWA belt instead of the warm advection south of it. This rainband is jointed to the rainband over southern China, forming the long southwest–northeast-oriented East Asian spring rainband. Increasing moisture slightly displaces the rainband southeastward.

Restricted access
Andrew R. Wade and Matthew D. Parker

Abstract

High-shear, low-CAPE environments prevalent in the southeastern United States account for a large fraction of tornadoes and pose challenges for operational meteorologists. Yet, existing knowledge of supercell dynamics, particularly in the context of cloud-resolving modeling, is dominated by moderate- to high-CAPE environments typical of the Great Plains. This study applies high-resolution modeling to clarify the behavior of supercells in the more poorly understood low-CAPE environments, and compares them to a benchmark simulation in a higher-CAPE environment. Simulated low-CAPE supercells’ main updrafts do not approach the theoretical equilibrium level; their largest vertical velocities result not from buoyancy, but from dynamic accelerations associated with low-level mesocyclones and vortices. Surprisingly, low-CAPE tornado-like vortex parcels also sometimes stop ascending near the vortex top instead of carrying large vorticity upward into the midlevel updraft, contributing to vortex shallowness. Each of these low-CAPE behaviors is attributed to dynamic perturbation pressure gradient accelerations that are maximized in low levels, which predominate when the buoyancy is small.

Restricted access
Takahiro Toyoda, Hideyuki Nakano, Hidenori Aiki, Tomomichi Ogata, Yoshiki Fukutomi, Yuki Kanno, L. Shogo Urakawa, Kei Sakamoto, Goro Yamanaka, and Motoki Nagura

Abstract

A method is introduced for diagnosing the time evolution of wave energy associated with ENSO from an ocean reanalysis. In the diagnosis, time changes of kinetic and available potential energy are mainly represented by energy inputs caused by surface wind stress and horizontal energy fluxes for each vertically decomposed normal mode. The resulting time evolutions of the wave energy and vertical thermocline displacements in the 1997/98 and 2014–16 El Niño events are consistent with our previous knowledge of these events. Further, our result indicated that representation of several vertical modes is necessary to reproduce the broadly distributed downward thermocline displacements in the central to eastern equatorial Pacific, generated by a westerly wind event in the western equatorial Pacific (e.g., in March 1997), that are preconditioning for El Niño development. In addition, we investigated the wave energy budget, including the influence of data assimilation, on the complicated time evolution of equatorial thermocline displacements caused by repeated westerly and easterly wind events during the 2014–16 El Niño event. Our result suggests that noise from a momentum imbalance near the equator associated with data assimilation, which possibly affected the El Niño prediction failure in 2014, was much reduced by our developed ocean data assimilation system and reanalysis. This study, which provides a new connection between the theoretical works and reanalysis products that use sophisticated systems for synthesizing OGCMs and observations, should be useful for climate research and operational communities interested in ENSO.

Restricted access
Qiu Yang, Andrew J. Majda, and Nan Chen

Abstract

El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) diversity has a significant impact on global climate and seasonal prediction. However, it is still a challenging problem for present-day global climate models to simulate different types of ENSO events with realistic features simultaneously. In this paper, a tropical stochastic skeleton model for the interactions among wind bursts and the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), the El Niño, and the Walker circulation is developed to reproduce both dynamical and statistical features of the ENSO diversity. In this model, the intraseasonal component with state-dependent noise captures general features of wind bursts and the MJO, both of which play important roles in triggering the El Niño. The thermocline feedback is the dominant mechanism for generating the eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño, while a nonlinear zonal advection is incorporated into the model that contributes to the central Pacific (CP) El Niño. Besides, a simple but effective stochastic process describing the multidecadal variation of the background Walker circulation modulates the spatial patterns and occurrence frequency of the EP and CP El Niño. This model succeeds in simulating the quasi-regular moderate EP El Niño, the super El Niño, and the CP El Niño as well as the La Niña simultaneously. It also captures the observed non-Gaussian characteristics of sea surface temperature anomalies in different Niño regions. Individual case studies highlight the outstanding skill of the model in reproducing the observed El Niño episodes and their underlying mechanisms.

Open access
Sean R. Santellanes, George S. Young, David J. Stensrud, Matthew R. Kumjian, and Ying Pan

Abstract

Typical environmental conditions associated with horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) and cellular convection have been known for over 50 years. Yet our ability to predict whether HCRs, cellular convection, or no discernable organized (null) circulation will occur within a well-mixed convective boundary layer based upon easily observed environmental variables has been limited. Herein, a large database of 50 cases each of HCR, cellular convection, and null events is created that includes observations of mean boundary layer wind and wind shear, boundary layer depth; surface observations of wind, temperature, and relative humidity; and estimates of surface sensible heat flux. Results from a multiclass linear discriminant analysis applied to these data indicate that environmental conditions can be useful in predicting whether HCRs, cellular convection, or no circulation occurs, with the analysis identifying the correct circulation type on 72% of the case days. This result is slightly better than using a mean convective boundary layer (CBL) wind speed of 6 m s−1 to discriminate between HCRs and cells. However, the mean CBL wind speed has no ability to further separate out cases with no CBL circulation. The key environmental variables suggested by the discriminant analysis are mean sensible heat flux, friction velocity, and the Obukhov length.

Open access
Laura Paccini, Cathy Hohenegger, and Bjorn Stevens

Abstract

This study investigates whether the representation of explicit and parameterized convection influences the response to the Atlantic meridional mode (AMM). The main focus is on the precipitation response to the AMM-SST pattern, but possible implications for the atmospheric feedback on SST are also examined by considering differences in the circulation response between explicit and parameterized convection. On the basis of analysis from observations, SST composites are built to represent the positive and negative AMM. These SST patterns, in addition to the March–May climatology, are prescribed to the atmospheric ICON model. High-resolution simulations with explicit convection (E-CON) and coarse-resolution simulations with parameterized convection (P-CON) are used over a nested tropical Atlantic Ocean domain and a global domain, respectively. Our results show that a meridional shift of about 1° in the precipitation climatology explains most of the response to the AMM-SST pattern in simulations both with explicit convection and with parameterized convection. Our results also indicate a linearity in the precipitation response to the positive and negative AMM in E-CON, in contrast to P-CON. Further analysis of the atmospheric response to the AMM reveals that anomalies in the wind-driven enthalpy fluxes are generally stronger in E-CON than in P-CON. This result suggests that SST anomalies would be amplified more strongly in coupled simulations using an explicit representation of convection.

Restricted access
Anne Felsberg, Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, Manuela Girotto, Jean Poesen, Rolf H. Reichle, and Thomas Stanley

Abstract

This global feasibility study assesses the potential of coarse-scale, gridded soil water estimates for the probabilistic modeling of hydrologically triggered landslides, using Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS), Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) remote sensing data; Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) simulations; and six data products based on the assimilation of SMOS, SMAP, and/or GRACE observations into CLSM. SMOS or SMAP observations (~40-km resolution) are only available for less than 20% of the globally reported landslide events, because they are intermittent and uncertain in regions with complex terrain. GRACE terrestrial water storage estimates include 75% of the reported landslides but have coarse spatial and temporal resolutions (monthly, ~300 km). CLSM soil water simulations have the added advantage of complete spatial and temporal coverage, and are found to be able to distinguish between “stable slope” (no landslide) conditions and landslide-inducing conditions in a probabilistic way. Assimilating SMOS and/or GRACE data increases the landslide probability estimates based on soil water percentiles for the reported landslides, relative to model-only estimates at 36-km resolution for the period 2011–16, unless the CLSM model-only soil water content is already high (≥50th percentile). The SMAP Level 4 data assimilation product (at 9-km resolution, period 2015–19) more generally updates the soil water conditions toward higher landslide probabilities for the reported landslides, but is similar to model-only estimates for the majority of landslides where SMAP data cannot easily be converted to soil moisture owing to complex terrain.

Open access
Shuai Hu, Tianjun Zhou, and Bo Wu

Abstract

The year-to-year variations of Tibetan Plateau (TP) summer rainfall have tremendous climate impacts on the adjoining and even global climate, attracting extensive research attention in recent decades to understand the underlying mechanism. In this study, we investigate an open question of how El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences the TP precipitation. We show that the developing ENSO has significant impacts on the summer rainfall over the southwestern TP (SWTP), which is the second EOF mode of the interannual variability of summer rainfall over the TP. The moisture budget indicates that both the suppressed vertical motion and the deficit of moisture contribute to the reduction of SWTP rainfall during El Niño’s developing summer, with the former contribution 4 times larger than the latter. Moist static energy analyses indicate that the anomalous advection of climatological moist enthalpy by anomalous zonal wind is responsible for the anomalous descending motions over the SWTP. The El Niño–related southward displacements of the South Asian high and the upper-level cyclonic anomalies over the west of TP stimulated by the suppressed Indian summer monsoon precipitation are two key processes dominating the anomalous zonal moist enthalpy advection over SWTP. Meanwhile, the India–Burma monsoon trough is strengthened during El Niño developing summer, which prevents the advection of water vapor into the SWTP, and thus contributes to the deficit of summer SWTP rainfall. Our results help to understand the complicated ENSO-related air–sea interaction responsible for the variability of TP precipitation and have implications for seasonal prediction of the TP climate.

Open access
Zhang Yue, W. Zhou, and Tim Li

Abstract

The complex interaction between the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is further investigated in this study, with a focus on the impacts of the IOD on ENSO in the subsequent year [ENSO(+1)]. The interaction between the IOD and the concurrent ENSO [ENSO(0)] can be summarized as follows: ENSO(0) can trigger and enhance the IOD, while the IOD can enhance ENSO(0) and accelerate its demise. Regarding the impacts of IOD(0) on the subsequent ENSO(+1), it is revealed that the IOD can lead to anomalous SST cooling patterns over the equatorial Pacific after the winter following the IOD, indicating the formation of a La Niña–like pattern in the subsequent year. While the SST cooling tendency associated with a positive IOD is attributable primarily to net heat flux (thermodynamic processes) from autumn to the ensuing spring, after the ensuing spring the dominant contribution comes from oceanic processes (dynamic processes) instead. From autumn to the ensuing spring, the downward shortwave flux response contributes the most to SST cooling over the central and eastern Pacific, due to the cloud–radiation–SST feedback. From the ensuing winter to the ensuing summer, changes in latent heat flux (LHF) are important for SST cooling, indicating that the release of LHF from the ocean into the atmosphere increases due to strong evaporation and leads to SST cooling through the wind–evaporation–SST feedback. The wind stress response and thermocline shoaling verify that local Bjerknes feedback is crucial for the initiation of La Niña in the later stage.

Restricted access
Yongjia Lu, Wenshou Tian, Jiankai Zhang, Jinlong Huang, Ruhua Zhang, Tao Wang, and Mian Xu

Abstract

Using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset for the time period 1979–2016, we analyzed the influence of the stratospheric polar vortex shift on the Arctic Oscillation (AO) in winter (December–March). The results show that a shift in the stratospheric polar vortex toward the Eurasian continent is favorable for the occurrence of the negative phase of the AO. The duration of the AO events accompanied by the stratospheric polar vortex shift toward the Eurasian continent (AO-shift events) is longer than that of the remaining negative AO events (AO-noshift events), and the intensity of AO-shift events is greater than that of AO-noshift events from day 4 to day 15 of the life cycle of the events. The enhancement in the AO intensity during AO-shift events is likely due to downward extension of the stratospheric northern annular mode (NAM) signals and more poleward-propagating planetary waves in the troposphere and lower stratosphere and their convergence in the mid-high latitudes. Furthermore, the polar vortex shift can lead to changes in the intensity of the three action centers in the AO spatial pattern at 500 hPa. In general, during AO-shift events, the three action centers are stronger than those during AO-noshift events. There is an overall westward shift of the Arctic action center during AO-shift events, which may be closely related to the changes of Greenland blocking frequency.

Restricted access