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Masanori Saito, Ping Yang, Jiachen Ding, and Xu Liu

Abstract

A database [Texas A&M University dust 2020 (TAMUdust2020)] of the optical properties of irregular aerosol particles is developed for applications to radiative transfer simulations involving aerosols, particularly dust and volcanic ash particles. The particle shape model assumes an ensemble of irregular hexahedral geometries to mimic complex aerosol particle shapes in nature. State-of-the-art light scattering computational capabilities are employed to compute the single-scattering properties of these particles for wide ranges of values of the size parameter, the index of refraction, and the degree of sphericity. The database therefore is useful for various radiative transfer applications over a broad spectral region from ultraviolet to infrared. Overall, agreement between simulations and laboratory/in situ measurements is achieved for the scattering phase matrix and backscattering of various dust aerosol and volcanic ash particles. Radiative transfer simulations of active and passive spaceborne sensor signals for dust plumes with various aerosol optical depths and the effective particle sizes clearly demonstrate the applicability of the database for aerosol studies. In particular, the present database includes, for the first time, robust backscattering of nonspherical particles spanning the entire range of aerosol particle sizes, which shall be useful to appropriately interpret lidar signals related to the physical properties of aerosol plumes. Furthermore, thermal infrared simulations based on in situ measured refractive indices of dust aerosol particles manifest the effects of the regional variations of aerosol optical properties. This database includes a user-friendly interface to obtain user-customized aerosol single-scattering properties with respect to spectrally dependent complex refractive index, size, and the degree of sphericity.

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Yuqing Wang, Yuanlong Li, Jing Xu, Zhe-Min Tan, and Yanluan Lin

Abstract

In this study, a simple energetically based dynamical system model of tropical cyclone (TC) intensification is modified to account for the observed dependence of the intensification rate (IR) on the storm intensity. According to the modified dynamical system model, the TC IR is controlled by the intensification potential (IP) and the weakening rate due to surface friction beneath the eyewall. The IP is determined primarily by the rate of change in the potential energy available for a TC to develop, which is a function of the thermodynamic conditions of the atmosphere and the underlying ocean, and the dynamical efficiency of the TC system. The latter depends strongly on the degree of convective organization within the eyewall and the inner-core inertial stability of the storm. At a relatively low TC intensity, the IP of the intensifying storm is larger than the frictional weakening rate, leading to an increase in the TC IR with TC intensity in this stage. As the storm reaches an intermediate intensity of 30–40 m s−1, the difference between IP and frictional weakening rate reaches its maximum, concurrent with the maximum IR. Later on, the IR decreases as the TC intensifies further because the frictional dissipation increases with TC intensity at a faster rate than the IP. Finally, the storm approaches its maximum potential intensity (MPI) and the IR becomes zero. The modified dynamical system model is validated with results from idealized simulations with an axisymmetric nonhydrostatic, cloud-resolving model.

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Matthew H. Hitchman and Shellie M. Rowe

Abstract

The role of differential advection in creating tropopause folds and strong constituent gradients near midlatitude westerly jets is investigated using the University of Wisconsin Nonhydrostatic Modeling System (UWNMS). Dynamical structures are compared with aircraft observations through a fold and subpolar jet (SPJ) during research flight 4 (RF04) of the Stratosphere–Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport (START08) campaign. The observed distribution of water vapor and ozone during RF04 provides evidence of rapid transport in the SPJ, enhancing constituent gradients above relative to below the intrusion. The creation of a tropopause fold by quasi-isentropic differential advection on the upstream side of the trough is described. This fold was created by a southward jet streak in the SPJ, where upper-tropospheric air displaced the tropopause eastward in the 6–10 km layer, thereby overlying stratospheric air in the 3–6 km layer. The subsequent superposition of the subtropical and subpolar jets is also shown to result from quasi-isentropic differential advection. The occurrence of low values of ozone, water vapor, and potential vorticity on the equatorward side of the SPJ can be explained by convective transport of low-ozone air from the boundary layer, dehydration in the updraft, and detrainment of inertially unstable air in the outflow layer. An example of rapid juxtaposition with stratospheric air in the jet core is shown for RF01. The net effect of upstream convective events is suggested as a fundamental cause of the strong constituent gradients observed in midlatitude jets, with the aggregate divergence aloft causing upper-tropospheric air to flow over stratospheric air. Idealized diagrams illustrate the role of differential advection in creating tropopause folds and constituent gradient enhancement.

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Sukyoung Lee and Yohai Kaspi

Abstract

The structure and stability of Jupiter’s atmosphere is analyzed using transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) theory. Utilizing the ammonia distribution derived from microwave radiometer measurements of the Juno orbiter, the latitudinal and vertical distribution of the vertical velocity in the interior of Jupiter’s atmosphere is inferred. The resulting overturning circulation is then interpreted in the TEM framework to offer speculation of the vertical and meridional temperature distribution. At midlatitudes, the analyzed vertical velocity field shows Ferrel-cell-like patterns associated with each of the jets. A scaling analysis of the TEM overturning circulation equation suggests that in order for the Ferrel-cell-like patterns to be visible in the ammonia distribution, the static stability of Jupiter’s weather layer should be on the order of 1 × 10−2 s−1. At low latitudes, the ammonia distribution suggests strong upward motion, which is reminiscent of the rising branch of the Hadley cell where the static stability is weaker. Taken together, the analysis suggests that the temperature lapse rate in the midlatitudes is markedly smaller than that in the low latitudes. Because the cloud-top temperature is nearly uniform across all latitudes, the analysis suggests that in the interior of the weather layer, there could exist a temperature gradient between the low- and midlatitude regions.

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Hanii Takahashi, Alejandro Bodas-Salcedo, and Graeme Stephens

Abstract

The latest configuration of the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model, version 3 (HadGEM3), contains significant changes in the formulation of warm rain processes and aerosols. We evaluate the impacts of these changes in the simulation of warm rain formation processes using A-Train observations. We introduce a new model evaluation tool, quartile-based contoured frequency by optical depth diagrams (CFODDs), in order to fill in some blind spots that conventional CFODDs have. Results indicate that HadGEM3 has weak linkage between the size of particle radius and warm rain formation processes, and switching to the new warm rain microphysics scheme causes more difference in warm rain formation processes than switching to the new aerosol scheme through reducing overly produced drizzle mode in HadGEM3. Finally, we run an experiment in which we perturb the second aerosol indirect effect (AIE) to study the rainfall–aerosol interaction in HadGEM3. Since the large changes in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) appear in the AIE experiment, a large impact in warm rain diagnostics is expected. However, regions with large fractional changes in CDNC show a muted change in precipitation, arguably because large-scale constraints act to reduce the impact of such a big change in CDNC. The adjustment in cloud liquid water path to the AIE perturbation produces a large negative shortwave forcing in the midlatitudes.

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Georgios Deskos, Joseph C. Y. Lee, Caroline Draxl, and Michael A. Sprague

Abstract

We present a review of existing wind-wave coupling models and parameterizations used for large-eddy simulation of the marine atmospheric boundary layer. The models are classified into two main categories: (i) the wave phaseaveraged, sea-surface-roughness models and (ii) the wave phase-resolved models. Both categories are discussed from their implementation, validity, and computational efficiency viewpoints with emphasis given on their applicability in offshore wind energy problems. In addition to the various models discussed, a review of laboratory-scale and field-measurement databases are presented thereafter. The majority of the presented data have been gathered over many decades of studying air-sea interaction phenomena, with the most recent ones compiled to reflect an offshore wind energy perspective. Both provide valuable data for model validation. Finally, we also discuss the modeling knowledge gaps and computational challenges ahead.

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Youtong Zheng, Haipeng Zhang, and Zhanqing Li

Abstract

Surface latent heat flux (LHF) has been considered as the determinant driver of the stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition (SCT). The distinct signature of the LHF in driving the SCT, however, has not been found in observations. This motivates us to ask: how determinant is the LHF to SCT? To answer it, we conduct large-eddy simulations in a Lagrangian setup in which the sea-surface temperature increases over time to mimic a low-level cold air advection. To isolate the role of LHF, we conduct a mechanism-denial experiment in which the LHF adjustment is turned off. The simulations confirm the indispensable roles of LHF in sustaining (although not initiating) the boundary layer decoupling (first stage of SCT) and driving the cloud regime transition (second stage of SCT). However, using theoretical arguments and LES results, we show that decoupling can happen without the need for LHF to increase as long as the capping inversion is weak enough to ensure high entrainment efficiency. The high entrainment efficiency alone cannot sustain the decoupled state without the help of LHF adjustment, leading to the recoupling of the boundary layer that eventually becomes cloud-free. Interestingly, the stratocumulus sheet is sustained longer without LHF adjustment. The mechanisms underlying the findings are explained from the perspectives of cloud-layer budgets of energy (first stage) and liquid water path (second stage).

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Tsung-Yung Lee, Chun-Chieh Wu, and Rosimar Rios-Berrios

Abstract

The impact of low-level flow (LLF) direction on the intensification of intense tropical cyclones under moderate deep-layer shear is investigated based on idealized numerical experiments. The background flow profiles are constructed by varying the LLF direction with the same moderate deep-layer shear. When the maximum surface wind speed of the simulation without background flow reaches 70 knots, the background flow profiles are imposed. After a weakening period in the first 12 h, the members with upshear-left-pointing LLF (fast-intensifying group) intensify faster between 12–24 h than those members (slow-intensifying group) with downshear-right-pointing LLF. The fast-intensifying group experiences earlier development of inner-core structures after 12 h, such as potential vorticity below the mid-troposphere, upper-level warm core, eyewall axisymmmetrization, and moist entropy gradient, while the inner-core features of the slow-intensifying group remain relatively weak and asymmetric. The FI group experiences smaller tilt increase and stronger mid-level PV ring development. The upshear-left convection during 6–12 h is responsible for the earlier development of the inner core by reducing ventilation, providing axisymmetric heating and benefiting the eyewall development. The LLF of the fast-intensifying group enhances surface heat fluxes in the downshear side, resulting in higher energy supply to the upshear-left convection from the boundary layer. In all, this study provides new insights on the impact of LLF direction on intense storms under moderate shear by modulating the surface heat fluxes and eyewall convection.

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Eric Bembenek, Timothy M. Merlis, and David N. Straub

Abstract

A large fraction of tropical cyclones (TCs) are generated near the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), and barotropic instability of the related wind shear has been shown to be an important generation mechanism. The latitudinal position of the ITCZ shifts seasonally and may shift poleward in response to global warming. Aquaplanet GCM simulations have shown TC-generation frequency to vary with position of the ITCZ. These results, and that moisture plays an essential role in the dynamics, motivate the present study on the growth rates of barotropic instability in ITCZ-like zonal wind profiles. Base-state zonal wind profiles are generated by applying a prescribed forcing (representing zonally-averaged latent heat release in the ITCZ) to a shallow-water model. Shifting the latitudinal position of the forcing alters these profiles, with a poleward shift leading to enhanced barotropic instability. Next, an examination of how latent release impacts the barotropic breakdown of these profiles is considered. To do this, moisture is explicitly represented using a tracer variable. Upon supersaturation, precipitation occurs and the related latent heat release is parameterized as a mass transfer out of the dynamically active layer. Whether moisture serves to enhance or reduce barotropic growth rates is found to depend on how saturation humidity is represented. In particular, taking it to be constant or a function of the layer thickness (related to temperature) leads to a reduction, whereas taking it to be a specified function of latitude leads to an enhancement. Simple arguments are given to support the idea that moisture effects should lead to a reduction in the moist shallow water model and that a poleward shift of the ITCZ should lead to an enhancement of barotropic instability.

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Emilien Jolly, Fabio D’Andrea, Gwendal Rivière, and Sebastien Fromang

Abstract

The changes of midlatitude Rossby waves and cold extreme temperature events (cold spells) during warm Arctic winters are analysed using a dry three-level quasi-geostrophic model on the sphere. Two long-term simulations are compared: the first run has the observed wintertime climatology, while the second run includes the composite of the global anomalies associated with the six hottest Arctic winters. A spectral analysis shows a large increase in wave amplitude for near-zero and westward phase speeds and a more moderate decrease for high eastward phase speeds. The increase in low-frequency variability (periods greater than a week) associated with the power shift to slower waves is largely responsible for an increase in mid-latitude long-lasting cold spells. In mid-latitude regions, in presence of a mean warming, that increase in low-frequency variance compensates the increase of the mean temperature, resulting at places in a frequency of cold spells that remains by and large unaltered. In presence of mean cooling, both the increase in variance and the decrease in the mean temperature participate in an increased frequency of cold spells. Sensitivity experiments show that the power shift to slower waves is mainly due to the tropical anomalies that developed during those particular winters and less importantly to changes in the background flow at higher latitudes associated with the Arctic Amplification pattern.

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