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Hanii Takahashi, Alejandro Bodas-Salcedo, and Graeme Stephens

Abstract

The latest configuration of the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 3 (HadGEM3) contains significant changes in the formulation of warm rain processes and aerosols. We evaluate the impacts of these changes in the simulation of warm rain formation processes using A-Train observations. We introduce a new model evaluation tool, quartile-based Contoured Frequency by Optical Depth Diagrams (CFODDs), in order to fill in some blind spots that conventional CFODDs have. Results indicate that HadGEM3 has weak linkage between the size of particle radius and warm rain formation processes, and switching to the new warm rain microphysics scheme causes more difference in warm rain formation processes than switching to the new aerosol scheme through reducing overly produced drizzle mode in HadGEM3. Finally, we run an experiment in which we perturb the second aerosol indirect effect (AIE) to study the rainfall-aerosol interaction in HadGEM3. Since the large changes in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) appear in the AIE experiment, a large impact in warm rain diagnostics is expected. However, regions with large fractional changes in CDNC show a muted change in precipitation, arguably because large-scale constraints act to reduce the impact of such a big change in CDNC. The adjustment in cloud liquid water path to the AIE perturbation produces a large negative shortwave forcing in the midlatitudes.

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ARIANE MIDDEL, SAUD ALKHALED, FLORIAN A. SCHNEIDER, BJOERN HAGEN, and PAUL COSEO

Abstract

Cities increasingly recognize the importance of shade to reduce heat stress and adopt urban forestry plans with ambitious canopy goals. Yet, the implementation of tree and shade plans often faces maintenance, water use, and infrastructure challenges. Understanding the performance of natural and non-natural shade is critical to support active shade management in the built environment. We conducted hourly transects in Tempe, Arizona with the mobile human-biometeorological station MaRTy on hot summer days to quantify the efficacy of various shade types. We sampled sun-exposed reference locations and shade types grouped by urban form, lightweight/engineered shade, and tree species over multiple ground surfaces. We investigated shade performance during the day, at peak incoming solar, peak air temperature, and after sunset using three thermal metrics: the difference between a shaded and sun-exposed location in air temperature (ΔTa), surface temperature (ΔTs), and mean radiant temperature (ΔTMRT). ΔTa did not vary significantly between shade groups, but ΔTMRT spanned a 50°C range across observations. At daytime, shade from urban form most effectively reduced Ts and TMRT, followed by trees and lightweight structures. Shade from urban form performed differently with changing orientation. Tree shade performance varied widely; native and palm trees were least effective, while non-native trees were most effective. All shade types exhibited heat retention (positive ΔTMRT) after sunset. Based on the observations, we developed characteristic shade performance curves that will inform the City of Tempe’s design guidelines towards using “the right shade in the right place” and form the basis for the development of microclimate zones (MCSz).

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Kenneth J. Davis, Edward V. Browell, Sha Feng, Thomas Lauvaux, Michael D. Obland, Sandip Pal, Bianca C. Baier, David F. Baker, Ian T. Baker, Zachary R. Barkley, Kevin W. Bowman, Yu Yan Cui, A. Scott Denning, Joshua P. DiGangi, Jeremy T. Dobler, Alan Fried, Tobias Gerken, Klaus Keller, Bing Lin, Amin R. Nehrir, Caroline P. Normile, Christopher W. O’Dell, Lesley E. Ott, Anke Roiger, Andrew E. Schuh, Colm Sweeney, Yaxing Wei, Brad Weir, Ming Xue, and Christopher A. Williams

Abstract

The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) – America NASA Earth Venture Suborbital Mission set out to improve regional atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) inversions by exploring the intersection of the strong GHG fluxes and vigorous atmospheric transport that occurs within the midlatitudes. Two research aircraft instrumented with remote and in situ sensors to measure GHG mole fractions, associated trace gases, and atmospheric state variables collected 1140.7 flight hours of research data, distributed across 305 individual aircraft sorties, coordinated within 121 research flight days, and spanning five, six-week seasonal flight campaigns in the central and eastern United States. Flights sampled 31 synoptic sequences, including fair weather and frontal conditions, at altitudes ranging from the atmospheric boundary layer to the upper free troposphere. The observations were complemented with global and regional GHG flux and transport model ensembles. We found that midlatitude weather systems contain large spatial gradients in GHG mole fractions, in patterns that were consistent as a function of season and altitude. We attribute these patterns to a combination of regional terrestrial fluxes and inflow from the continental boundaries. These observations, when segregated according to altitude and air mass, provide a variety of quantitative insights into the realism of regional CO2 and CH4 fluxes and atmospheric GHG transport realizations. The ACT-America data set and ensemble modeling methods provide benchmarks for the development of atmospheric inversion systems. As global and regional atmospheric inversions incorporate ACT-America’s findings and methods, we anticipate these systems will produce increasingly accurate and precise sub-continental GHG flux estimates.

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Benjamin J. Moore, Allen B. White, and Daniel J. Gottas

Abstract

Prolonged periods (e.g., several days or more) of heavy precipitation can result in sustained high-impact flooding. Herein, an investigation of long-duration heavy precipitation events (HPEs), defined as periods comprising ≥ 3 days with precipitation exceeding the climatological 95th percentile, is conducted for 1979–2019 for the U.S. West Coast, specifically Northern California. An objective flow-based categorization method is applied to identify principal large-scale flow patterns for the events. Four categories are identified and examined through composite analyses and case studies. Two of the categories are characterized by a strong zonal jet stream over the eastern North Pacific, while the other two are characterized by atmospheric blocking over the central North Pacific and the Bering Sea–Alaska region, respectively. The composites and case studies demonstrate that the flow patterns for the HPEs tend to remain in place for several days, maintaining strong baroclinicity and promoting occurrences of multiple cyclones in rapid succession near the West Coast. The successive cyclones result in persistent water vapor flux and forcing for ascent over Northern California, sustaining heavy precipitation. For the zonal jet patterns, cyclones affecting the West Coast tend to occur in the poleward jet exit region in association with cyclonic Rossby wave breaking. For the blocking patterns, cyclones tend to occur in association with anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking on the downstream flank of the block. For Bering Sea–Alaska blocking cases, cyclones can move into this region in conjunction with cyclonically breaking waves that extend into the eastern North Pacific from the upstream flank of the block.

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Ryan L. Fogt and Charlotte J. Connolly

Abstract

Because continuous meteorological observations across Antarctica did not start until the middle of the 20th century, little is known about the full spatial pattern of pressure variability across the extratropical Southern Hemisphere (SH) in the early 20th century, defined here as the period from 1905-1956. To fill this gap, this study analyzes pressure observations across the SH in conjunction with seasonal pressure reconstructions across Antarctica, which are based on observed station-to-station statistical relationships between pressure over Antarctica and the southern midlatitudes. Using this newly generated dataset, it is found that the early 20th century is characterized by synchronous, but opposite signed pressure relationships between Antarctica and the SH midlatitudes, especially in austral summer and autumn. The synchronous pressure relationships are consistent with the Southern Annular Mode, extending its well-known influence on SH extratropical pressure since 1957 into the early 20th century. Apart from connections with the Southern Annular Mode, regional and shorter-duration pressure trends are found to be associated with influences from tropical variability and potentially the zonal wavenumber three pattern. Although the reduced network of SH observations and Antarctic reconstruction capture the Southern Annular Mode in the early 20th century, reanalyses products show varying skill in reproducing trends and variability, especially over the oceans and high southern latitudes prior to 1957, which stresses the importance of continual efforts of historical data rescue in data sparse regions to improve their quality.

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Svenya Chripko, Rym Msadek, Emilia Sanchez-Gomez, Laurent Terray, Laurent Bessières, and Marie-Pierre Moine

Abstract

The Northern Hemisphere transient atmospheric response to Arctic sea decline is investigated in autumn and winter, using sensitivity experiments performed with the CNRMCM6-1 high-top climate model. Arctic sea ice albedo is reduced to the ocean value, yielding ice-free conditions during summer and a more moderate sea ice reduction during the following months. A strong ampli_cation of temperatures over the Arctic is induced by sea ice loss, with values reaching up to 25°C near the surface in autumn. Signi_cant surface temperature anomalies are also found over the mid-latitudes, with a warming reaching 1°C over North America and Europe, and a cooling reaching 1°C over central Asia. Using a dynamical adjustment method based on a regional reconstruction of circulation analogs, we show that the warming over North America and Europe can be explained both by changes in the atmospheric circulation and by the advection of warmer oceanic air by the climatological ow. In contrast, we demonstrate that the sea-ice induced cooling over central Asia is solely due to dynamical changes, involving an intensi_cation of the Siberian High and a cyclonic anomaly over the Sea of Okhotsk. In the troposphere, the abrupt Arctic sea ice decline favours a narrowing of the subtropical jet stream and a slight weakening of the lower part of the polar vortex that is explained by a weak enhancement of upward wave activity toward the stratosphere. We further show that reduced Arctic sea ice in our experiments is mainly associated with less severe cold extremes in the mid-latitudes.

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Samson HagosP, L. Ruby LeungP, Oluwayemi Garuba, and Christina M. Patricola

Abstract

The frequency of North Pacific atmospheric rivers (ARs) affects water supply and flood risk over western North America. Thus, understanding factors that affect the variability of landfalling AR frequency is of scientific and societal importance. This study aims at identifying the sources of the moisture for North Pacific ARs and assessing how different modes of variability modulate these sources. To this end, the sources and variability of the background divergent component of the integrated moisture flux (DIVT) in ARs are identified using MERRA reanalysis. It is shown that in the boreal winter, this background DIVT in ARs is related to the outflow from the subsidence over the subtropics which transports moisture northward, while in summer it is related to the Asian monsoon and it transports moisture northwestward. This leads to a seasonal northwest/southeast movement of the AR frequency climatology. At the intra-seasonal scale, propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation introduces an anti-clockwise rotation of the background DIVT, with northward transport in phases 1 and 2, westward in 3 and 4, southward in 5 and 6 and eastward in 7 and 8, making landfall over the west coast of North America most likely during the last two phases. Similarly, El Niño Southern Oscillation variability also affects the frequency of ARs through modulation of the westerly background DIVT, favoring landfall over the US west coast during strong El Niño phases. It is shown that in general the likelihood of AR landfall over the western US is correlated with the zonal background DIVT over northeastern Pacific.

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Matthew D. Flournoy and Erik N. Rasmussen

Abstract

Recent studies have highlighted the importance of near-ground storm-relative helicity (SRH) in supercell and tornado processes and how surface friction can play a role. In this study, we use an analytical approach to examine how uniform changes to the ground-relative wind profile above the near-ground layer influence SRH within the near-ground layer. We show how the ground-relative influence of surface friction alters the near-ground shear profile. For idealized semicircular and straight shear profiles, increasing preexisting ground-relative flow above the near-ground layer yields increasing SRH. The magnitude of the SRH increase is sensitive to storm motion, with more deviant motion yielding greater SRH increases given the same increase in ground-relative flow. Supercells may be more susceptible to storm-induced SRH enhancements given their deviant motion and ability to increase ground-relative flow in the background environment.

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Soichiro Hirano, Masashi Kohma, and Kaoru Sato

Abstract

The relation between interannual variability of stratospheric final warming (SFW) and tropospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) is explored using reanalysis data and a linear barotropic model. The analysis is focused on quasi-stationary waves with zonal wavenumber 1 (s = 1 QSWs; s is zonal wavenumber), which are the dominant component of the SH extratropical planetary waves.

First, interannual variability of SFW is investigated in terms of amplitudes of stratospheric and tropospheric s = 1 QSWs, and wave transmission properties of the mean flow from the late austral winter to spring. Upward Eliassen–Palm flux due to s = 1 QSWs is larger from the stratosphere down to the middle troposphere in early-SFW years than late-SFW years. More favorable conditions for propagation of s = 1 stationary waves into the stratosphere are identified in early-SFW years. These results indicate that the amplification of tropospheric s = 1 QSWs and the favorable conditions for their propagation into the stratosphere lead to the amplification of stratospheric s = 1 QSWs, and hence earlier SFWs.

Next, numerical calculations using a linear barotropic model are performed to explore how tropospheric s = 1 QSWs at high latitudes amplifies in early-SFW years. By using tropical Rossby wave source and horizontal winds in the reanalysis data as a source and background field, respectively, differences in s = 1 steady responses between early- and late-SFWs are examined at high latitudes. It is suggested that the larger amplitudes of tropospheric s = 1 QSWs in early-SFW years are attributed to differences in wave propagation characteristics associated with structure of the midlatitude jets in austral spring.

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Peter N. Blossey, Christopher S. Bretherton, and Johannes Mohrmann

Abstract

The goal of this study is to challenge a large eddy simulation model with a range of observations from a modern field campaign and to develop case studies useful to other modelers. The 2015 Cloud System Evolution in the Trades (CSET) field campaign provided a wealth of in situ and remote sensing observations of subtropical cloud transitions in the summertime Northeast Pacific. Two Lagrangian case studies based on these observations are used to validate the thermodynamic, radiative and microphysical properties of large eddy simulations (LES) of the stratocumulus to cumulus transition. The two cases contrast a relatively fast cloud transition in a clean, initially well-mixed boundary layer vs. a slower transition in an initially decoupled boundary layer with higher aerosol concentrations and stronger mean subsidence. For each case, simulations of two neighboring trajectories sample mesoscale variability and the coherence of the transition in adjacent air masses. In both cases, LES broadly reproduce satellite and aircraft observations of the transition. Simulations of the first case match observations more closely than for the second case, where simulations underestimate cloud cover early in the simulations and overestimate cloud top height later. For the first case, simulated cloud fraction and liquid water path increase if a larger cloud droplet number concentration is prescribed. In the second case, precipitation onset and inversion cloud breakup occurs earlier when the LES domain is chosen large enough to support strong mesoscale organization.

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