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Takuro Matsuta and Yukio Masumoto

Abstract

The nonlocality of eddy–mean flow interactions, which appears explicitly in the modified Lorentz diagram as a form of the interaction energy, and its link to other estimation methods are revisited, and a new formulation for the potential enstrophy is proposed. The application of these methods to the Kuroshio Extension region suggests that the combined use of energy analysis with other methods, including the potential enstrophy diagram, provides more comprehensive understandings for the eddy–mean flow interactions in the limited region. It is shown that the interaction energy is transported from the nearshore and upstream regions to the downstream region in the form of the interaction energy flux, causing acceleration of the Kuroshio Extension jet in the downstream region. The potential enstrophy diagram indicates that the eddy field decelerates (accelerates) the jet in the nearshore (downstream) region, which is a consistent result with the energy analysis. It turns out that the interaction potential enstrophy flux is radiated from a region of the eddy kinetic energy maximum toward the upstream region, which is the opposite direction from the interaction energy flux. The interaction potential enstrophy flux that originated from this eddy kinetic energy maximum region also convergences near the center of the northern recirculation gyre of the Kuroshio Extension region and tends to stabilize the structures of the recirculation gyre. Together with the energy analysis that indicates the eddy field accelerates the northeastern part of the recirculation gyre through the local interactions, the present analyses support the arguments on the eddy-driven northern recirculation gyre.

Open access
Xiaohui Xie and Dake Chen

Abstract

Two sets of mooring data were collected at two sites (MA and MB) along a cross-slope section on the northeastern continental slope in the South China Sea (SCS). These data are used to investigate evolution and energy decay of low-mode semidiurnal (M2) internal tides on a subcritical slope with respect to M2. At the deep portion of the slope (~1250 m; MA), the M2 internal tides show upward energy propagation, while vertically standing M2 internal tides are often observed at shallow MB (~845 m). A two-dimensional linear internal tide model with realistic topography and stratification reproduces the observations, suggesting that low-mode M2 internal tides incident on subcritical slopes evolve into vertically propagating internal waves due to topographic scattering, propagate upward to the boundary, and reflect from the sea surface. The reflection point largely depends on the phase between the modal components of the incoming flux. In the near-surface reflection region, two kinds of nonlinear effects are observed to decay energy of the incoming internal tides. One is the resonant parametric subharmonic instability which transfers M2 internal tides to diurnal subharmonics M1 (=M2/2), but the instability is found to mainly depend on the incident waves. The other one is the nonresonant wave–wave interaction, producing two higher-harmonic M4 (=2M2) rays with opposite vertical propagation. A strong westward mean flow is observed in the interacting region, with amplitude comparable to that of the incident waves. This mean flow also appears to be generated by the nonlinear reflection of the M2 internal tides.

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Veit Lüschow, Jochem Marotzke, and Jin-Song von Storch

Abstract

In this paper, the overturning responses to wind stress changes of an eddying ocean and a non-eddying ocean are compared. Differences are found in the deep overturning cell in the low-latitude North Atlantic Ocean with substantial implications for the deep western boundary current (DWBC). In an ocean-only twin experiment with one eddying and one non-eddying configuration of the MPI ocean model, two different forcings are being applied: the standard NCEP forcing and the NCEP forcing with 2× surface wind stress. The response to the wind stress doubling in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation is similar in the eddying and the non-eddying configuration, showing an increase by about 4 Sv (~25%; 1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1). In contrast, the DWBC responds with a speedup in the non-eddying configuration and a slowdown in the eddying configuration. This paper demonstrates that the DWBC slowdown in the eddying configuration is largely balanced by eddy vorticity fluxes. Because those fluxes are not resolved and also not captured by an eddy parameterization in the non-eddying configuration, such a DWBC slowdown is likely not to occur in non-eddying ocean models, which therefore might not capture the whole range of overturning responses. Furthermore, evidence is provided that the balancing effect of the eddies is not a passive reaction to a remotely triggered DWBC slowdown. Instead, deep eddies that are sourced from the upper ocean provide an excess input of relative vorticity that then actively forces the DWBC mean flow to slow down.

Open access
Agnieszka Herman

Abstract

Dissipation within the turbulent boundary layer under sea ice is one of many processes contributing to wave energy attenuation in ice-covered seas. Although recent observations suggest that the contribution of that process to the total energy dissipation is significant, its parameterizations used in spectral wave models are based on fairly crude, heuristic approximations. In this paper, an improved source term for the under-ice turbulent dissipation is proposed, taking into account the spectral nature of that process (as opposed to parameterizations that are based on the so-called representative wave), as well as effects related to sea ice concentration and floe-size distribution, formulated on the basis of the earlier results of discrete-element modeling. The core of the new source term is based on an analogous model for dissipation due to bottom friction derived by Weber in 1991 (https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112091003634). The shape of the wave energy attenuation curves and the frequency dependence of the attenuation coefficients are analyzed in detail for compact sea ice. The role of floe size in modifying the attenuation intensity and spectral distribution is illustrated by calibrating the model to observational data from a sudden sea ice breakup event in the marginal ice zone.

Open access
Tao Wang, Roy Barkan, James C. McWilliams, and M. Jeroen Molemaker

Abstract

Submesoscale currents (SMCs), in the forms of fronts, filaments, and vortices, are studied using a high-resolution (~150 m) Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS) simulation in the Mississippi River plume system. Fronts and filaments are identified by large horizontal velocity and buoyancy gradients, surface convergence, and cyclonic vertical vorticity with along-coast fronts and along-plume-edge filaments notably evident. Frontogenesis and arrest/destruction are two fundamental phases in the life cycle of fronts and filaments. In the Mississippi River plume region, the horizontal advective tendency induced by confluence and convergence plays a primary role in frontogenesis. Confluent currents sharpen preexisting horizontal buoyancy gradients and initiate frontogenesis. Once the fronts and filaments are formed and the Rossby number reaches O(1), they further evolve frontogenetically mainly by convergent secondary circulations, which can be maintained by different cross-front momentum balance regimes. Confluent motions and preexisting horizontal buoyancy gradients depend on the interaction between wind-induced Ekman transport and the spreading plume water. Consequently, the direction of wind has a significant effect on the temporal variability of SMCs, with more active SMCs generated during a coastally downwelling-favorable wind and fewer SMCs during an upwelling-favorable wind. Submesoscale instabilities (~1–3 km) play a primary role in the arrest and fragmentation of most fronts and filaments. These instabilities propagate along the fronts and filaments, and their energy conversion is a mixed barotropic–baroclinic type with horizontal-shear instabilities dominating.

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André Palóczy, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, and Amy F. Waterhouse

Abstract

We describe the spatiotemporal variability and vertical structure of turbulent Reynolds stresses (RSs) in a stratified inner shelf with an energetic internal wave climate. The RSs are estimated from direct measurements of velocity variance derived from bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers. We link the RSs to different physical processes, namely, internal bores, midwater shear instabilities within vertical shear events related to wind-driven subtidal along-shelf currents, and nonturbulent stresses related to incoming nonlinear internal wave (NLIW) trains. The typical RS magnitudes are O(0.01) Pa for background conditions, with diurnal pulses of O(0.1–1) Pa, and O(1) Pa for the NLIW stresses. A NLIW train is observed to produce a depth-averaged vertical stress divergence sufficient to accelerate water 20 cm s−1 in 1 h, suggesting NLIWs may also be important contributors to the depth-averaged momentum budget. The subtidal stresses show significant periodic variability and are O(0.1) Pa. Conditionally averaged velocity and RS profiles for northward/southward flow provide evidence for downgradient turbulent momentum fluxes, but also indicate departures from this expected regime. Estimates of the terms in the depth-averaged momentum equation suggest that the vertical divergence of the RSs are important terms in both the cross-shelf and along-shelf directions, with geostrophy also present at leading-order in the cross-shelf momentum balance. Among other conclusions, the results highlight that internal bores and shoaling NLIWs may also be important dynamical players in other inner shelves with energetic internal waves.

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Hongjie Li and Yongsheng Xu

Abstract

Stratified geostrophic turbulence theory predicts an inverse energy cascade for the barotropic (BT) mode. Satellite altimetry has revealed a net inverse cascade in the baroclinic (BC) mode. Here the spatial variabilities of BT and BC kinetic energy fluxes in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) were investigated using ECCO2 data, which synthesize satellite data and in situ measurements with an eddy-permitting general circulation model containing realistic bathymetry and wind forcing. The BT and BC inverse kinetic energy cascades both reveal complex spatial variations that could not be explained fully by classical arguments. For example, the BC injection scales match better with most unstable scales than with the first-mode deformation scales, but the opposite is true for the BT mode. In addition, the BT and BC arrest scales do not follow the Rhines scale well in terms of spatial variation, but show better consistency with their own energy-containing scales. The reverse cascade of the BT and BC modes was found related to their EKE, and better correlation was found between the BT inverse cascade and barotropization. Speculations of the findings were proposed; however, further observations and modeling experiments are needed to test these interpretations. Spectral flux anisotropy exhibits a feature associated with oceanic jets that is consistent with classical expectations. Specifically, the spectral flux along the along-stream direction remains negative at scales up to that of the studied domain (~2000 km), while that in the perpendicular direction becomes positive close to the scale of the width of a typical jet.

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Hui Wu

Abstract

Pressure anomaly set by the open ocean affects the dynamic topography and associated circulation over the continental shelf, which is explored here on a linearized β-plane arrested topographic wave framework that considers the variation in Coriolis parameter with latitude. It was found that on a meridional shelf, a nondimensional parameter Peβ, termed the β Péclet number, signifies the characteristics of open ocean–shelf interaction. The PeβD β/α is determined by the ratio of long-wave-limit planetary to topographic Rossby wave speeds, i.e., the β drift D β, and the linear Ekman number α. On the western boundary shelf, due to the westward planetary Rossby wave, open ocean pressure propagates shoreward as Peβ > 1, and shelf circulation peaks where Peβ drops to 1. At this location, the planetary β effect is balanced by the bottom friction. The Peβ = 1 must occur either on the shelf or on the coastal wall when Peβ > 1 is observed at the shelf edge. On the eastern boundary shelf, however, Peβ < 0, the pressure anomaly is removed from the shelf, and hence the inductive circulation decays rapidly from the shelf edge. This β effect is robust on gently sloping meridional shelves. For zonal shelves, the planetary β increases the effective bottom slope on the northern boundary shelf but decreases it on the southern one, in a sense of potential vorticity conservation. However, this effect could be less significant in reality, given the complex dynamics involved. The above mechanism can explain the dynamics driving the Taiwan Warm Current in the East China Sea and its bifurcation around 28°N.

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Xiaodong Wu, Falk Feddersen, and Sarah N. Giddings

Abstract

Here, we explore the kinematics and dynamics of coastal density fronts (within 10 km from shore and <30-m depth), identified using an edge detection algorithm, in a realistic high-resolution model of the San Diego Bight with relatively weak winds and small freshwater input. The density fronts have lengths spanning 4–10 km and surface density gradients spanning 2–20 × 10−4 kg m−4. Cross-shore-oriented fronts are more likely with northward subtidal flow and are 1/3 as numerous as alongshore-oriented fronts, which are more likely with onshore surface baroclinic diurnal flow. Using a subset of the cross-shore fronts, decomposed into cross-front mean and perturbation components, an ensemble front is created. The ensemble cross-front mean flow is largely geostrophic in the cross- and alongfront directions. The ensemble cross-shore front extends several kilometers from shore, with a distinct linear front axis and downwelling (upwelling) on the dense (light) side of the front, convergent perturbation cross-front flow within the upper 5 m, strengthening the ensemble front. Vertical mixing of momentum is weak, counter to the turbulent thermal wind mechanism. The ensemble cross-shore front resembles a gravity current and is generated by a convergent strain field acting on the large-scale density field. The ensemble front is bounded by the shoreline and is alongfront geostrophic and cross-front ageostrophic. This contrasts with the cross-front geostrophic and alongfront ageostrophic balances of classic deformation frontogenesis, but is consistent with semigeostrophic coastal circulation.

Open access
Renske Gelderloos, Thomas W. N. Haine, and Mattia Almansi

Abstract

Ocean currents along the southeast Greenland coast play an important role in the climate system. They carry dense water over the Denmark Strait sill, freshwater from the Arctic and the Greenland Ice Sheet into the subpolar ocean, and warm Atlantic Ocean water into Greenland’s fjords, where it can interact with outlet glaciers. Observational evidence from moorings shows that the circulation in this region displays substantial subinertial variability (typically with periods of several days). For the dense water flowing over the Denmark Strait sill, this variability augments the time-mean transport. It has been suggested that the subinertial variability found in observations is associated with coastal trapped waves, whose properties depend on bathymetry, stratification, and the mean flow. Here, we use the output of a high-resolution realistic simulation to diagnose and characterize subinertial variability in sea surface height and velocity along the coast. The results show that the subinertial signals are coherent over hundreds of kilometers along the shelf. We find coastal trapped waves on the shelf and along the shelf break in two subinertial frequency bands—at periods of 1–3 and 5–18 days—that are consistent with a combination of mode-I waves and higher modes. Furthermore, we find that northeasterly barrier winds may trigger the 5–18-day shelf waves, whereas the 1–3-day variability is linked to high wind speeds over Sermilik Deep.

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