Browse

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 5,046 items for :

  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology x
  • All content x
Clear All
Sean Celona, Sophia T. Merrifield, Tony de Paolo, Nate Kaslan, Tom Cook, Eric J. Terrill, and John A. Colosi

Abstract

A method based on machine learning and image processing techniques has been developed to track the surface expression of internal waves in near–real time. X-band radar scans are first preprocessed and averaged to suppress surface wave clutter and enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of persistent backscatter features driven by gradients in surface currents. A machine learning algorithm utilizing a support vector machine (SVM) model is then used to classify whether or not the image contains an internal solitary wave (ISW) or internal tide bore (bore). The use of machine learning is found to allow rapid assessment of the large dataset, and provides insight on characterizing optimal environmental conditions to allow for radar illumination and detection of ISWs and bores. Radon transforms and local maxima detections are used to locate these features within images that are determined to contain an ISW or bore. The resulting time series of locations is used to create a map of propagation speed and direction that captures the spatiotemporal variability of the ISW or bore in the coastal environment. This technique is applied to 2 months of data collected near Point Sal, California, and captures ISW and bore propagation speed and direction information that currently cannot be measured with instruments such as moorings and synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

Restricted access
Caitlin B. Whalen

Abstract

The turbulent energy dissipation rate in the ocean can be measured by using rapidly sampling microstructure shear probes, or by applying a finescale parameterization to coarser-resolution density and/or shear profiles. The two techniques require measurements that are on different spatiotemporal scales and generate dissipation rate estimates that also differ in spatiotemporal scale. Since the distribution of the measured energy dissipation rate is closer to lognormal than normal and fluctuates with the strength of the turbulence, averaging the two approaches on equivalent spatiotemporal scales is critical for accurately comparing the two methods. Here, microstructure data from the 1997 Brazil Basin Tracer Release Experiment (BBTRE) is used to demonstrate that comparing averages of the dissipation rate on different spatiotemporal scales can generate spurious discrepancies of up to a factor of order 10 in regions of strong turbulence and smaller biases of up to a factor of 2 in the presence of weaker turbulence.

Open access
Laurence C. Breaker and Dustin Carroll

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to extract more information about the scaling exponents we obtain from sea surface temperature (SST) because their information content is limited to a single value. We examine the application of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to power-law scaling using SST from Scripps Pier, California. The daily observations we employ extend from 1920 to 2009, a period of 90 years. The annual cycle and the long-term trend were first removed. The decomposition produced a total of 15 modes. The scaling exponents were then calculated separately for each mode from the EMD. We have examined the distribution of scaling exponents with respect to the ensemble, and then with respect to the individual modes for the oceanic processes that we may infer from them. The first three modes are antipersistent and contain about one-quarter of the total variance. The pattern of modes that was obtained is continuous and relatively smooth beyond mode 3 with increasing values up to mode 8 and generally decreasing values thereafter. The pattern exhibits intramodal correlation, as expected, and intermodal correlation as well. Intermodal correlation is likely due, for the most part, to long-range persistence. The annual cycle in SST at Scripps Pier is a dominant feature in the record and contains almost 70% of the variance. A method for removing the annual cycle that is not based on removing the mean value is introduced and is recommended for future use.

Restricted access
Biao Zhang, Yiru Lu, William Perrie, Guosheng Zhang, and Alexis Mouche

Abstract

We have developed C-band compact polarimetry geophysical model functions for RADARSAT Constellation Mission ocean surface wind speed retrieval. A total of 1594 RADARSAT-2 images acquired in quad-polarization SAR imaging mode were collocated with in situ buoy observations. This dataset is first used to simulate compact polarimetric data and to examine their dependencies on radar incidence angle and wind vectors. We find that right circular transmit, right circular receive (RR-pol) radar backscatters are less sensitive to incidence angles and wind directions but are more dependent on wind speeds, compared to right circular transmit, horizontal receive (RH-pol), right circular transmit, vertical receive (RV-pol), and right circular transmit, left circular receive (RL-pol). Subsequently, the matchup data pairs are used to derive the coefficients of the transfer functions for the proposed compact polarimetric geophysical model (CMOD) functions, and to validate the associated wind speed retrieval accuracy. Statistical comparisons show that the retrieved wind speeds from CMODRH, CMODRV, CMODRL, and CMODRR are in good agreement with buoy measurements, with root-mean-square errors of 1.38, 1.51, 1.47, and 1.25 m s−1, respectively. The results suggest that compact polarimetry is a good alternative to linear polarization for wind speed retrieval. CMODRR is more appropriate to retrieve high wind speeds than CMODRH, CMODRV or CMODRL.

Restricted access
Orrin Lancaster, Remo Cossu, Sebastien Boulay, Scott Hunter, and Tom E. Baldock

Abstract

Wave measurements from a new, low-cost, real-time wave buoy (Spotter) are investigated in a comparative study as part of a site characterization study at a wave energy candidate site at King Island, Tasmania, Australia. Measurements from the Sofar Ocean Spotter buoy are compared with concurrent measurements from a Teledyne RD Instrument (RDI) 1200 kHz Work Horse ADCP and two RBRsolo3 D wave16 pressure loggers. The comparison period between 8th August – 12th October 2019 provides both the shallowest and longest continuous published comparison undertaken with the Spotter buoy.

Strong agreement was evident between the Spotter buoy and RDI ADCP of key wave parameters including the significant wave height, peak wave period, and mean wave direction, with the mean values of those parameters across the full deployment period agreeing within 3%. Surface wave spectra and directional spectra are also analyzed with good agreement observed over the majority of the frequency domain, although the Spotter buoy records approximately 17% less energy within a narrow frequency band near the peak frequency when compared to the RDI ADCP. Measurements derived from the pressure loggers routinely underestimated the significant wave height and overestimated the mean wave period over the deployment period. The comparison highlights the suitability of the Spotter buoy for low-cost wave resource studies, with accurate measurements of key parameters and spectra observed.

Restricted access
Shakeel Asharaf, Duane E. Waliser, Derek J. Posselt, Christopher S. Ruf, Chidong Zhang, and Agie W. Putra

Abstract

Surface wind plays a crucial role in many local/regional weather and climate processes, especially through the exchanges of energy, mass, and momentum across Earth’s surface. However, there is a lack of consistent observations with continuous coverage over the global tropical ocean. To fill this gap, the NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) mission was launched in December 2016, consisting of a constellation of eight small spacecrafts that remotely sense near-surface wind speed over the tropical and subtropical oceans with relatively high sampling rates both temporally and spatially. This current study uses data obtained from the Tropical Moored Buoy Arrays to quantitatively characterize and validate the CYGNSS derived winds over the tropical Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans. The validation results show that the uncertainty in CYGNSS wind speed, as compared with these tropical buoy data, is less than 2 m s−1 root-mean-square difference, meeting the NASA science mission level-1 uncertainty requirement for wind speeds below 20 m s−1. The quality of the CYGNSS wind is further assessed under different precipitation conditions, and in convective cold-pool events, identified using buoy rain and temperature data. Results show that CYGNSS winds compare fairly well with buoy observations in the presence of rain, though at low wind speeds the presence of rain appears to cause a slight positive wind speed bias in the CYGNSS data. The comparison indicates the potential utility of the CYGNSS surface wind product, which in turn may help to unravel the complexities of air–sea interaction in regions that are relatively undersampled by other observing platforms.

Open access
Skylar S. Williams, Timothy J. Wagner, and Ralph A. Petersen

Abstract

The addition of moisture observations via the Water Vapor Sensing System (WVSS) from about 150 aircraft available operationally through the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) program now provides highly reliable thermodynamic profiles of the troposphere. The nearly 900 profiles available daily provide greater temporal and spatial density than the operational radiosonde network over many parts of the United States. Previous studies comparing WVSS reports with specially collocated radiosondes have documented the quality and consistency of the WVSS observations. These studies, however, have been limited for short periods at a single location. This study expands on the earlier evaluations by using operational U.S. radiosondes from 2015 in a variety of locations, seasons, and climates. Comparison profiles at radiosonde sites were calculated in pressure layers and then interpolated to terrain-following sigma coordinates to account for the differences in elevations of comparison sites and provide a better means of integrating the higher vertical resolution of AMDAR observations taken in the boundary layer. Overall, systematic differences between the WVSS and radiosondes are smallest just above the surface, with the WVSS observations being slightly moister than the radiosondes aloft, with WVSS reports being moister during ascent than descent—possibly the result of small hysteresis effects. Standard deviations averaged 1.3 g kg−1 near the surface over the yearlong period. Differences varied by season and region. Overall, the results indicate that WVSS observations are compatible with radiosonde reports and can be used with high confidence to fill temporal and spatial data gaps.

Restricted access
Zhetao Tan, Franco Reseghetti, John Abraham, Rebecca Cowley, Keyi Chen, Jiang Zhu, Bin Zhang, and Lijing Cheng

Abstract

Expendable bathythermographs (XBTs) have been widely deployed for ocean monitoring since the late 1960s. Improving the quality of XBT data is a vital task in climatology. Many factors (e.g., temperature, probe type, and manufacturing time) have been identified as major influences of XBT systematic bias. In addition, the recording system (RS) has long been suspected as another factor. However, this factor has not been taken into account in any global XBT correction schemes, partly because its impact is poorly understood. Here, based on analysis of an XBT–CTD side-by-side dataset and a global collocated reference dataset, the influence of RSs on the pure temperature error (PTE) is examined. Results show a clear time dependency of PTE on the RS, with maximum values occurring in the 1970s. In addition, the method used to convert thermistor resistance into temperature in the RS (using a resistance–temperature equation) has changed over time. These changes, together with the decadal changes in RSs, might contribute a small error (10% on average) to the RS dependency. Here, an improvement of global XBT bias correction that accounts for the RS dependency is proposed. However, more than 70% of historical global XBT data are missing RS-type information. We investigate several assumptions about the temporal distribution of RS types, and all scenarios lead to at least a ~50% reduction in the time variation of PTE compared with the uncorrected data. Therefore, the RS dependency should be taken into account in updated XBT correction schemes, which would have further implications for climatology studies.

Restricted access
Baoqing Wang, Zhenzhen Tang, Yinuo Li, and Ningning Cai

Abstract

Particle trajectories around an aircraft will change during a flight; therefore, analyzing particle distribution around the aircraft is necessary to accurately sample aerosols. Both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and wind tunnel experiments are employed to optimize the sampling zones around an aircraft. The wind tunnel model is the Harbin Y-12, similar to the Twin Otter and King Air. The aircraft head is taken as the coordinate original point. The coordinate X is parallel to the wings, the coordinate Y is parallel to the fuselage, and the coordinate Z is perpendicular to the fuselage. The results show that the closer the distance to the central line for the X direction is, the greater the velocity error is. A suitable position for sampling is under the fuselage because of low turbulence, convenient connection pipelines, and safety considerations. The shadow and enhancement zone area thicknesses gradually increase with increasing particle size. The shadow zone thickness under the fuselage is approximately 20, 70, 110, and 350 mm for particle sizes of 1, 10, 20, and 50 μm, respectively. The greater the distance from the aircraft head for the Y direction is, the smaller the velocity error is. The attack angle has no obvious effect on the flow speed at different positions. The CFD simulation results are in basic agreement with the wind tunnel experiment results. The optimal sampling zone is approximately 2300–6500 mm for the Y direction for the aircraft head, 250–500 mm for the X direction for the aircraft head, and 490–600 mm for the Z direction under the fuselage of aircraft.

Restricted access
Haruhiko Kashiwase, Kay I. Ohshima, Kazuki Nakata, and Takeshi Tamura

Abstract

Long-term quantification of sea ice production in coastal polynyas (thin sea ice areas) is an important issue to understand the global overturning circulation and its changes. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), which has nearly 30 years of observation, is a powerful tool for that purpose owing to its ability to detect thin ice areas. However, previous SSM/I thin ice thickness algorithms differ between regions, probably due to the difference in dominant type of thin sea ice in each region. In this study, we developed an SSM/I thin ice thickness algorithm that accounts for three types of thin sea ice (active frazil, thin solid ice, and a mixture of two types), using the polarization and gradient ratios. The algorithm is based on comparison with the ice thickness derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 22 polynya events off the Ross Ice Shelf, off Cape Darnley, and off the Ronne Ice Shelf in the Southern Ocean. The algorithm can properly discriminate the ice type in coastal polynyas and estimate the thickness of thin sea ice (≤20 cm) with an error range of less than 6 cm. We also confirmed that the algorithm can be applied to other passive microwave radiometers with higher spatial resolution to obtain more accurate and detailed distributions of ice type and thickness. The validation of this algorithm in the Arctic Ocean suggests its applicability to the global oceans.

Open access