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Gregory L. Wagner, Gregory P. Chini, Ali Ramadhan, Basile Gallet, and Raffaele Ferrari

Abstract

Between 5% and 25% of the total momentum transferred between the atmosphere and ocean is transmitted via the growth of long surface gravity waves called “swell.” In this paper, we use large-eddy simulations to show that swell-transmitted momentum excites near-inertial waves and drives turbulent mixing that deepens a rotating, stratified, turbulent ocean surface boundary layer. We find that swell-transmitted currents are less effective at producing turbulence and mixing the boundary layer than currents driven by an effective surface stress. Overall, however, the differences between swell-driven and surface-stress-driven boundary layers are relatively minor. In consequence, our results corroborate assumptions made in Earth system models that neglect the vertical structure of swell-transmitted momentum fluxes and instead parameterize all air–sea momentum transfer processes with an effective surface stress.

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Xiangzhou Song, Chunlin Ning, Yongliang Duan, Huiwu Wang, Chao Li, Yang Yang, Jianjun Liu, and Weidong Yu

Abstract

Six-month buoy-based heat flux observations from the poorly sampled tropical southeastern Indian Ocean are examined to document the extremes during three tropical cyclones (TCs) from December 2018 to May 2019. The most striking feature at the mooring site (16.9°S, 115.2°E) during the TCs is the extensively suppressed diurnal cycle of the net surface flux (Qnet), with a mean daytime (nighttime) reduction of 470 (131) W m−2, a peak decrease at approximately noon of 695 W m−2 and an extreme drop during TC Riley of 800 W m−2. The mean surface cooling in the daytime is primarily contributed by the 370 W m−2 decrease in shortwave radiation associated with the increased cloudiness. The air–sea turbulent heat fluxes increase by approximately 151 W m−2 in response to the enhanced wind speed under near-neutral boundary conditions. The daily mean rainfall-induced cooling is 8 W m−2, with a maximum magnitude of 90 W m−2. The mean values, seasonal variation, and synoptic variability of the characteristic heat fluxes are used to assess the new reanalysis data from ERA5 and MERRA2 and the analyzed OAFlux. The overall performance of the high-frequency net heat flux estimates at the synoptic scale is satisfactory, but the four flux components exhibit different quality levels. A serious error is that ERA5 and MERRA2 poorly represent TCs, and they show significant daily mean Qnet biases with opposite directions, −59 W m−2 (largely due to the overestimated latent heat with a bias of −76 W m−2) and 50 W m−2 (largely due to the overestimated shortwave radiation with a bias of 41 W m−2), respectively.

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Ricardo Domingues, Matthieu Le Hénaff, George Halliwell, Jun A. Zhang, Francis Bringas, Patricia Chardon, Hyun-Sook Kim, Julio Morell, and Gustavo Goni

Abstract

Major Atlantic hurricanes Irma, Jose, and Maria of 2017 reached their peak intensity in September while traveling over the tropical North Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, where both atmospheric and ocean conditions were favorable for intensification. In situ and satellite ocean observations revealed that conditions in these areas exhibited (i) sea surface temperatures above 28°C, (ii) upper-ocean heat content above 60 kJ cm−2, and (iii) the presence of low-salinity barrier layers associated with a larger-than-usual extension of the Amazon and Orinoco riverine plumes. Proof-of-concept coupled ocean–hurricane numerical model experiments demonstrated that the accurate representation of such ocean conditions led to an improvement in the simulated intensity of Hurricane Maria for the 3 days preceding landfall in Puerto Rico, when compared to an experiment without the assimilation of ocean observations. Without the assimilation of ocean observations, upper-ocean thermal conditions were generally colder than observations, resulting in reduced air–sea enthalpy fluxes—enthalpy fluxes are more realistically simulated when the upper-ocean temperature and salinity structure is better represented in the model. Our results further showed that different components of the ocean observing system provide valuable information in support of improved TC simulations, and that assimilation of underwater glider observations alone enabled the largest improvement over the 24 h time frame before landfall. Our results, therefore, indicated that ocean conditions were relevant for more realistically simulating Hurricane Maria’s intensity. However, further research based on a comprehensive set of hurricane cases is required to confirm robust improvements to forecast systems.

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Ji-Won Kim, Ting-Huai Chang, Ching-Teng Lee, and Jin-Yi Yu

Abstract

Using observational data and model hindcasts produced by a coupled climate model, we examine the response of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) to three types of El Niño: eastern Pacific (EP) and central Pacific I (CP-I) and II (CP-II) El Niños. The observational analysis shows that all three El Niño types weaken the EAWM with varying degrees of impact. The EP El Niño has the largest weakening effect, while the CP-II El Niño has the second largest, and the CP-I El Niño has the smallest. We find that diverse El Niño types impact the EAWM by altering the responses of two anomalous anticyclones during El Niño mature winter: the western North Pacific anticyclone (WNPAC) and Kuroshio anticyclone (KAC). The WNPAC responses are controlled by the Gill response and Indian Ocean warming processes that both respond to the eastern-to-central tropical Pacific precipitation anomalies. The KAC responses are controlled by a poleward wave propagation responding to the northwestern tropical Pacific precipitation anomalies. We find that the model hindcasts significantly underestimate the weakening effect during the EP and CP-II El Niños. These underestimations are related to a model deficiency in which it produces a too-weak WNPAC response during the EP El Niño and completely misses the KAC response during both types of El Niño. The too-weak WNPAC response is caused by the model deficiency of simulating too-weak eastern-to-central tropical Pacific precipitation anomalies. The lack of KAC response arises from the unrealistic response of the model’s extratropical atmosphere to the northwestern tropical Pacific precipitation anomalies.

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Xiaojing Li and Youmin Tang

Abstract

This work uses a 19-yr ensemble hindcast of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the average predictable time (APT) method to detect the most predictable tropical intraseasonal variability (ISV) mode. The first and most predictable mode (APT1) of tropical ISV is similar to a joint merger of the two Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) modes with more weight on the second mode and is characterized by a tripole pattern with two positive centers in the equatorial western Indian Ocean and central Pacific Ocean and a negative center over the Maritime Continent. The APT1 doubles the skillful prediction period made by the MJO defined by a correlation skill of 0.5 (approximately 25 days in the ECMWF model), demonstrating its potential to become a skillful prediction target and to offer powerful subseasonal prediction sources. The underlying physical process and predictability source of the APT1 are further analyzed. The APT1 is very similar to the pattern triggered by the most predictable tropical intraseasonal sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies mode, suggesting its oceanic origin. Tropical ocean–atmosphere interaction plays a critical role in the APT1 by enhancing the evolution of tropical convection cells under WES (wind–evaporation–SST) and Bjerknes feedbacks. The internal atmospheric processes also have an important impact on the formation and maintenance of the APT1.

Open access
Fiaz Ahmed and J. David Neelin

Abstract

Entrainment of dry tropospheric air can dilute cloud buoyancies and strongly affect the occurrence and intensity of convection. To measure this dry air influence on tropical precipitation, rainfall values that would occur when convection is “protected” from dry air dilution are estimated. An empirical relationship between tropical oceanic precipitation and entraining buoyancy in the lower troposphere (from the surface to 600 hPa) is leveraged. Protected buoyancies are computed by allowing a plume model to entrain saturated air at environmental temperature. These buoyancies are then used to estimate precipitation from protected convection. In most regions, the protected precipitation greatly exceeds the observed precipitation. Warm waters adjoining continents display striking disparities between observed and protected rainfall pointing to rainfall climatologies severely limited by dry air. The most prominent of these regions include the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, followed by the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the seas surrounding the Maritime Continent. We test if similar large precipitation values are realizable in the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM5), wherein the parameterized convection in small (~2° × 2°) pockets is allowed to only entrain saturated air. The precipitation within these pockets shows strong enhancement that is maintained over time, and is compensated by slight reductions in neighboring regions. In the model, protecting convection yields larger precipitation values over ocean than over land; protected precipitation also intensifies in a uniform SST warming experiment. The model experiments suggest that protected pockets in numerical simulations could be used to mimic the consequences of meteorological protection—from closed circulation or moisture shielding effects—that generate extreme precipitation.

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Tyler Cox, Kyle C. Armour, Gerard H. Roe, Aaron Donohoe, and Dargan M. W. Frierson

Abstract

Atmospheric heat transport is an important piece of our climate system, yet we lack a complete theory for its magnitude or changes. Atmospheric dynamics and radiation play different roles in controlling the total atmospheric heat transport (AHT) and its partitioning into components associated with eddies and mean meridional circulations. This work focuses on two specific controls: a radiative one, namely atmospheric radiative temperature tendencies, and a dynamic one, the planetary rotation rate. We use an idealized gray radiation model to employ a novel framework to lock the radiative temperature tendency and total AHT to climatological values, even while the rotation rate is varied. This setup allows for a systematic study of the effects of radiative tendency and rotation rate on AHT. We find that rotation rate controls the latitudinal extent of the Hadley cell and the heat transport efficiency of eddies. Both the rotation rate and radiative tendency influence the strength of the Hadley cell and the strength of equator–pole energy differences that are important for AHT by eddies. These two controls do not always operate independently and can reinforce or dampen each other. In addition, we examine how individual AHT components, which vary with latitude, sum to a total AHT that varies smoothly with latitude. At slow rotation rates the mean meridional circulation is most important in ensuring total AHT varies smoothly with latitude, while eddies are most important at rotation rates similar to, and faster than, those of Earth.

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Ayumu Miyamoto, Hisashi Nakamura, Takafumi Miyasaka, and Yu Kosaka

Abstract

Over the south Indian Ocean, the coupled system of the subtropical Mascarene high and low-level clouds exhibits marked seasonality. To investigate this seasonality, the present study assesses radiative impacts of low-level clouds on the summertime Mascarene high with a coupled general circulation model. Comparison between a fully coupled control simulation and a “no-low-cloud simulation,” where the radiative effects of low-level clouds are artificially turned off, demonstrates that they act to reinforce the Mascarene high. Their impacts are so significant that the summertime Mascarene high almost disappears in the no-low-cloud experiment, suggesting their essential role in the existence of the summertime Mascarene high. As the primary mechanism, lowered sea surface temperature by the cloud albedo effect suppresses deep convective precipitation, inducing a Matsuno–Gill type response that reinforces the high, as verified through an atmospheric dynamical model diagnosis. Associated reduction of high-top clouds, as well as increased low-level clouds, augments in-atmosphere radiative cooling, which further reinforces the high. The present study reveals that low-level clouds constitute a tight positive feedback system with the subtropical high via sea surface temperature over the summertime south Indian Ocean.

Open access
Hua Li, Shengping He, Ke Fan, Yong Liu, and Xing Yuan

Abstract

The mei-yu withdrawal date (MWD) is a crucial indicator of flood/drought conditions over East Asia. It is characterized by a strong interannual variability, but its underlying mechanism remains unknown. We investigated the possible effects of the winter sea surface temperature (SST) in the North Pacific Ocean on the MWD on interannual to interdecadal time scales. Both our observations and model results suggest that the winter SST anomalies associated with the MWD are mainly contributed to by a combination of the first two leading modes of the winter SST in the North Pacific, which have a horseshoe shape (the NPSST). The statistical results indicate that the intimate linkage between the NPSST and the MWD has intensified since the early 1990s. During the time period 1990–2016, the NPSST-related SST anomalies persisted from winter to the following seasons and affected the SST over the tropical Pacific in July. Subsequently, the SST anomalies throughout the North Pacific strengthened the southward migration of the East Asian jet stream (EAJS) and the southward and westward displacement of the western North Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), leading to an increase in mei-yu rainfall from 1 to 20 July. More convincingly, the anomalous EAJS and WPSH induced by the SST anomalies can be reproduced well by numerical simulations. By contrast, the influence of the NPSST on the EASJ and WPSH were not clear between 1961 and 1985. This study further illustrates that the enhanced interannual variability of the NPSST may be attributed to the more persistent SST anomalies during the time period 1990–2016.

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Jan D. Zika, Jonathan M. Gregory, Elaine L. McDonagh, Alice Marzocchi, and Louis Clément

Abstract

Over 90% of the buildup of additional heat in the Earth system over recent decades is contained in the ocean. Since 2006, new observational programs have revealed heterogeneous patterns of ocean heat content change. It is unclear how much of this heterogeneity is due to heat being added to and mixed within the ocean leading to material changes in water mass properties or is due to changes in circulation that redistribute existing water masses. Here we present a novel diagnosis of the “material” and “redistributed” contributions to regional heat content change between 2006 and 2017 that is based on a new “minimum transformation method” informed by both water mass transformation and optimal transportation theory. We show that material warming has large spatial coherence. The material change tends to be smaller than the redistributed change at any geographical location; however, it sums globally to the net warming of the ocean, whereas the redistributed component sums, by design, to zero. Material warming is robust over the time period of this analysis, whereas the redistributed signal only emerges from the variability in a few regions. In the North Atlantic Ocean, water mass changes indicate substantial material warming while redistribution cools the subpolar region as a result of a slowdown in the meridional overturning circulation. Warming in the Southern Ocean is explained by material warming and by anomalous southward heat transport of 118 ± 50 TW through redistribution. Our results suggest that near-term projections of ocean heat content change and therefore sea level change will hinge on understanding and predicting changes in ocean redistribution.

Open access