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Pichaya Lertvilai, Paul L.D. Roberts, and Jules S. Jaffe

Abstract

The development of a low-cost Video Velocimeter (VIV) to estimate underwater bulk flow velocity is described. The instrument utilizes a simplified particle image correlation technique to reconstruct an average flow velocity vector from video recordings of ambient particles. The VIV uses a single camera with a set of mirrors that splits the view into two stereoscopic views, allowing estimation of the flow velocity vector. The VIV was validated in a controlled flume using ambient seawater, and subsequently field tested together with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter with both mounted close to the coastal seafloor. When used in non-turbulent flow, the instrument can estimate mean flow velocity parallel to the front face of the instrument with root-mean-squared errors of the main flow within 10% of the ±20 cm/s measurement range when compared to an ADV. The predominant feature of the VIV is that it is a cost-effective method to estimate flow velocity in complex benthic habitats where velocity parallel to the sea floor is of interest.

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Christopher Bladwell, Ryan M. Holmes, and Jan D. Zika

Abstract

The global water cycle is dominated by an atmospheric branch which transfers fresh water away from subtropical regions and an oceanic branch which returns that fresh water from subpolar and tropical regions. Salt content is commonly used to understand the oceanic branch because surface freshwater fluxes leave an imprint on ocean salinity. However, freshwater fluxes do not actually change the amount of salt in the ocean and – in the mean – no salt is transported meridionally by ocean circulation. To study the processes which determine ocean salinity we introduce a new variable: “internal salt” and its counterpart “internal fresh water”. Precise budgets for internal salt in salinity coordinates relate meridional and diahaline transport to surface freshwater forcing, ocean circulation and mixing, and reveal the pathway of fresh water in the ocean. We apply this framework to a 1° global ocean model. We find that in order for fresh water to be exported from the ocean’s tropical and subpolar regions to the subtropics, salt must be mixed across the salinity surfaces that bound those regions. In the tropics, this mixing is achieved by parameterized vertical mixing, along-isopycnal mixing, and numerical mixing associated with truncation errors in the model’s advection scheme, while along-isopycnal mixing dominates at high latitudes. We analyze the internal freshwater budgets of the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins and identify the transport pathways between them which redistribute fresh water added through precipitation, balancing asymmetries in freshwater forcing between the basins.

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Heidi Kreibich, Paul Hudson, and Bruno Merz

Abstract

Flood warning systems are longstanding success stories in respect to protecting human life, but monetary losses continue to grow. Knowledge on the effectiveness of flood early warning in reducing monetary losses is scarce, especially at the individual level. To gain more knowledge in this area, we analyze a dataset which is unique in respect to detailed information on warning reception and monetary losses at the property level and in respect to amount of data available. The dataset contains 4468 loss cases from six flood events in Germany. These floods occurred between 2002 and 2013. The data from each event was collected by computer aided telephone interviews in four surveys following a repeated cross-sectional design. We quantitatively reveal that flood early warning is only effective in reducing monetary losses when people know what to do when they receive the warning. We also show, that particularly long-term preparedness is associated with people knowing what to do when they receive a warning. Thus, risk communication, training, and (financial) support for private preparedness are effective in mitigating flood losses in two ways: through precautionary measures and more effective emergency responses.

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J. Thomas Farrar, Theodore Durland, Steven R. Jayne, and James F. Price

Abstract

Measurements from satellite altimetry are used to show that sea-surface height (SSH) variability throughout much of the North Pacific is coherent with the SSH signal of the tropical instability waves (TIWs) that result from instabilities of the equatorial currents. This variability has regular phase patterns consistent with freely propagating barotropic Rossby waves radiating energy away from the unstable equatorial currents, and the waves clearly propagate from the equatorial region to at least 30°N. The pattern of SSH variance at TIW frequencies exhibits remarkable patchiness on scales of hundreds of kilometers, which we interpret as being due to the combined effects of wave reflection, refraction, and interference. North of 40°N, more than 6000 km from the unstable equatorial currents, the SSH field remains coherent with the near-equatorial SSH variability, but it is not as clear whether the variability at the higher latitudes is a simple result of barotropic wave radiation from the tropical instability waves. Even more distant regions, as far north as the Aleutian Islands off of Alaska and the Kamchatka Peninsula of eastern Russia, have SSH variability that is significantly coherent with the near-equatorial instabilities. The variability is not well represented in the widely used gridded SSH data product commonly referred to as the AVISO or DUACS product, and this appears to be a result of spatial variations in the filtering properties of the objective mapping scheme.

Open access
Andrea Storto, Giovanni De Magistris, Silvia Falchetti, and Paolo Oddo

Abstract

Variational data assimilation requires implementing the tangent-linear and adjoint (TA/AD) version of any operator. This intrinsically hampers the use of complicated observations. Here, we assess a new data-driven approach to assimilate acoustic underwater propagation measurements (Transmission Loss, TL) into a regional ocean forecasting system. TL measurements depend on the underlying sound speed fields, mostly temperature, and their inversion would require heavy coding of the TA/AD of an acoustic underwater propagation model. In this study, the non-linear version of the acoustic model is applied to an ensemble of perturbed oceanic conditions. TL outputs are used to formulate both a statistical linear operator based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA), and a neural network-based (NN) operator. For the latter, two linearization strategies are compared, the best-performing one relying on reverse-mode automatic differentiation. The new observation operator is applied in data assimilation experiments over the Ligurian Sea (Mediterranean Sea), using the Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) methodology to assess the impact of TL observations onto oceanic fields. TL observations are extracted from a nature run with perturbed surface boundary conditions and stochastic ocean physics. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the NN reconstruction of TL is significantly better than CCA. Both CCA and NN are able to improve the upper ocean skill scores in forecast experiments, with NN outperforming CCA on the average. The use of the NN observation operator is computationally affordable, and its general formulation appears promising for the adjoint-free assimilation of any remote sensing observing network.

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Milind Sharma, Robin L. Tanamachi, Eric C. Bruning, and Kristin M. Calhoun

Abstract

We demonstrate the utility of transient polarimetric signatures (ZDR and KDP columns, a proxy for surges in a thunderstorm updraft) to explain variability in lightning flash rates in a tornadic supercell. Observational data from a WSR-88D and the Oklahoma lightning mapping array are used to map the temporal variance of polarimetric signatures and VHF sources from lightning channels. It is shown, via three dimensional and cross-sectional analyses, that the storm was of inverted polarity resulting from anomalous electrification. Statistical analysis confirms that mean flash area in the ZDR column region was ten times smaller than elsewhere in the storm. On an average, five times more flash initiations occurred within ZDR column regions, thereby supporting existing theory of an inverse relationship between flash initiation rates and lightning channel extent. Segmentation and object identification algorithms are applied to gridded radar data to calculate metrics such as height, width, and volume of ZDR and KDP columns. Variability in lightning flash rates is best explained by the fluctuations in ZDR column volume with a Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient value of 0.72. Highest flash rates occur in conjunction with deepest ZDR columns (up to 5 km above environmental melting level) and largest volumes of ZDR columns extending up to the -20° level (3 km above the melting level). Reduced flash rates towards the end of analysis are indicative of weaker updrafts manifested as low ZDR column volumes at and above the -10°C level. These findings are consistent with recent studies linking lightning to the interplay between storm dynamics, kinematics, thermodynamics, and precipitation microphysics.

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Ofer Shamir, Chen Schwartz, Chaim I. Garfinkel, and Nathan Paldor

Abstract

A yet unexplained feature of the tropical wavenumber-frequency spectrum is its parity distributions, i.e., the distribution of power between the meridionally symmetric and anti-symmetric components of the spectrum. Due to the linearity of the decomposition to symmetric and anti-symmetric components and the Fourier analysis, the total spectral power equals the sum of the power contained in each of these two components. However, the spectral power need not be evenly distributed between the two components. Satellite observations and reanalysis data provide ample evidence that the parity distribution of the tropical wavenumber-frequency spectrum is biased towards its symmetric component. Using an intermediate-complexity model of an idealized moist atmosphere, we find that the parity distribution of the tropical spectrum is nearly insensitive to large-scale forcing, including topography, ocean heat fluxes, and land-sea contrast. On the other hand, we find that a small-scale (stochastic) forcing has the capacity to affect the parity distribution at large spatial scales via an upscale (inverse) turbulent energy cascade. These results are qualitatively explained by considering the effects of triad interactions on the parity distribution. According to the proposed mechanism, any bias in the small-scale forcing, symmetric or anti-symmetric, leads to symmetric bias in the large-scale spectrum regardless of the source of variability responsible for the onset of the asymmetry. As this process is also associated with the generation of large-scale features in the Tropics by small-scale convection, the present study demonstrates that the physical process associated with deep-convection leads to a symmetric bias in the tropical spectrum.

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Chunxue Yang, Francesca Elisa Leonelli, Salvatore Marullo, Vincenzo Artale, Helen Beggs, Bruno Bunogiorno Nardelli, Toshio M. Chin, Vincenzo De Toma, Simon Good, Boyin Huang, Christopher J. Merchant, Toshiyuki Sakurai, Rosalia Santoleri, Jorge Vazquez-Cuervo, Huai-Min Zhang, and Andrea Pisano

Abstract

A joint effort between the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and the Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) has been dedicated to an intercomparison study of eight global gap-free Sea Surface Temperature (SST) products to assess their accurate representation of the SST relevant to climate analysis. In general, all SST products show consistent spatial patterns and temporal variability during the overlapping time period (2003-2018). The main differences between each product are located in western boundary current and Antarctic Circumpolar Current regions. Linear trends display consistent SST spatial patterns among all products and exhibit a strong warming trend from 2012 to 2018 with the Pacific Ocean basin as the main contributor. SST discrepancy between all SST products is very small compared to the significant warming trend. Spatial power spectral density shows that the interpolation into 1° spatial resolution has negligible impacts on our results. The global mean SST time series reveals larger differences among all SST products during the early period of the satellite era (1982-2002) when there were fewer observations, indicating that the observation frequency is the main constraint of the SST climatology. The maturity matrix scores, which present the maturity of each product in terms of documentation, storage, and dissemination but not the scientific quality, demonstrate that ESA-CCI and OSTIA SST are well documented for users' convenience. Improvements could be made for MGDSST and BoM SST. Finally, we have recommended that these SST products can be used for fundamental climate applications and climate studies (e.g. El Nino).

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Alexander Staroselsky, Ranadip Acharya, and Alexander Khain

Abstract

The drop freezing process is described by a phase-field model. Two cases are considered: when the freezing is triggered by central nucleation and when nucleation occurs on the drop surface. Depending on the environmental temperature and drop size, different morphological structures develop. Detailed dendritic growth was simulated at the first stage of drop freezing. Independent of the nucleation location, a decrease in temperature within the range from ~ −5 to −25°C led to an increase in the number of dendrites and a decrease in their width and the interdendritic space. At temperatures lower than about −25°C, a planar front developed following surface nucleation, while dendrites formed a granular-like structure with small interdendritic distances following bulk nucleation. An ice shell grew in at the same time (but slower) as dendrites following surface nucleation, while it started forming once the dendrites have reached the drop surface in the case of central nucleation. The formed ice morphology at the first freezing stage predefined the splintering probability. We assume that stresses needed to break the ice shell arose from freezing of the water in the interdendritic spaces. Under this assumption, the number of possible splinters/fragments was proportional to the number of dendrites, and the maximum rate of splintering/fragmentation occurred within a temperature range of about −10 °C to −20°C, in agreement with available laboratory and in situ measurements. At temperatures < −25°C, freezing did not lead to the formation of significant stresses, making splintering unlikely. The number of dendrites increased with drop size, causing a corresponding increase in the number of splinters. Examples of morphology that favors drop cracking are presented, and the duration of the freezing stages is evaluated. Sensitivity of the freezing process to the surface fluxes is discussed.

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Adam C. Varble, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paola Salio, Joseph C. Hardin, Nitin Bharadwaj, Paloma Borque, Paul J. DeMott, Zhe Feng, Thomas C. J. Hill, James N. Marquis, Alyssa Matthews, Fan Mei, Rusen Öktem, Vagner Castro, Lexie Goldberger, Alexis Hunzinger, Kevin R. Barry, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Greg M. McFarquhar, Lynn A. McMurdie, Mikhail Pekour, Heath Powers, David M. Romps, Celeste Saulo, Beat Schmid, Jason M. Tomlinson, Susan C. van den Heever, Alla Zelenyuk, Zhixiao Zhang, and Edward J. Zipser

Abstract

The Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) field campaign was designed to improve understanding of orographic cloud life cycles in relation to surrounding atmospheric thermodynamic, flow, and aerosol conditions. The deployment to the Sierras de Córdoba range in north-central Argentina was chosen because of very frequent cumulus congestus, deep convection initiation, and mesoscale convective organization uniquely observable from a fixed site. The C-band Scanning Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Precipitation Radar was deployed for the first time with over 50 ARM Mobile Facility atmospheric state, surface, aerosol, radiation, cloud, and precipitation instruments between October 2018 and April 2019. An intensive observing period (IOP) coincident with the RELAMPAGO field campaign was held between 1 November and 15 December during which 22 flights were performed by the ARM Gulfstream-1 aircraft.

A multitude of atmospheric processes and cloud conditions were observed over the 7-month campaign, including: numerous orographic cumulus and stratocumulus events; new particle formation and growth producing high aerosol concentrations; drizzle formation in fog and shallow liquid clouds; very low aerosol conditions following wet deposition in heavy rainfall; initiation of ice in congestus clouds across a range of temperatures; extreme deep convection reaching 21-km altitudes; and organization of intense, hail-containing supercells and mesoscale convective systems. These comprehensive datasets include many of the first ever collected in this region and provide new opportunities to study orographic cloud evolution and interactions with meteorological conditions, aerosols, surface conditions, and radiation in mountainous terrain.

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