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  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology x
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W. G. Blumberg, T. J. Wagner, D. D. Turner, and J. Correia Jr.

Abstract

While radiosondes have provided atmospheric scientists an accurate high-vertical-resolution profile of the troposphere for decades, they are unable to provide high-temporal-resolution observations without significant recurring expenses. Remote sensing technology, however, has the ability to monitor the evolution of the atmosphere in unprecedented detail. One particularly promising tool is the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), a passive ground-based infrared radiometer. Through a physical retrieval, the AERI can retrieve the vertical profile of temperature and humidity at a temporal resolution on the order of minutes. The synthesis of these two instruments may provide an improved diagnosis of the processes occurring in the atmosphere. This study provides a better understanding of the capabilities of the AERI in environments supportive of deep, moist convection. Using 3-hourly radiosonde launches and thermodynamic profiles retrieved from collocated AERIs, this study evaluates the accuracy of AERI-derived profiles over the diurnal cycle by analyzing AERI profiles in both the convective and stable boundary layers. Monte Carlo sampling is used to calculate the distribution of convection indices and compare the impact of measurement errors from each instrument platform on indices. This study indicates that the nonintegrated indices (e.g., lifted index) derived from AERI retrievals are more accurate than integrated indices (e.g., CAPE). While the AERI retrieval’s vertical resolution can inhibit precise diagnoses of capping inversions, the high-temporal-resolution nature of the AERI profiles overall helps in detecting rapid temporal changes in stability.

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Thomas R. Parish and Richard D. Clark

Abstract

Extensive measurements were made of the summertime Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) in central Kansas during June and July 2015 as a component of the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field study. Here, the authors describe the early phase of the LLJ development on 20 June 2015. Half-hourly soundings were launched to monitor the progress of the jet. An airborne mission was also conducted using the University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft. Vertical sawtooth patterns were flown along a fixed track at 38.7°N between longitudes 98.9° and 100.3°W to document changes in the potential temperature and wind profiles. Ageostrophic winds during the LLJ formation were also assessed. In addition, a high-resolution numerical simulation of the 20 June 2015 LLJ case was conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. Observations and model results show that the early stage of development consisted of a rapid increase in wind speed in the hours just after sunset with less pronounced directional change. The LLJ evolution is similar to that expected from an inertial oscillation of the ageostrophic wind following the stabilization of the near-surface layer.

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