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Takuji Kubota, Shinta Seto, Masaki Satoh, Tomoe Nasuno, Toshio Iguchi, Takeshi Masaki, John M. Kwiatkowski, and Riko Oki

Abstract

An assumption related to clouds is one of uncertain factors in precipitation retrievals by the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on board the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory. While an attenuation due to cloud ice is negligibly small for Ku and Ka bands, attenuation by cloud liquid water is larger in the Ka band and estimating precipitation intensity with high accuracy from Ka-band observations can require developing a method to estimate the attenuation due to cloud liquid water content (CLWC). This paper describes a CLWC database used in the DPR level-2 algorithm for the GPM V06A product. In the algorithm, the CLWC value is assumed using the database with inputs of precipitation-related variables, temperature, and geolocation information. A calculation of the database was made using the 3.5-km-mesh global atmospheric simulation derived from the Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) global cloud-system-resolving model. Impacts of current CLWC assumptions for surface precipitation estimates were evaluated by comparisons of precipitation retrieval results between default values and 0 mg m−3 of the CLWC. The impacts were quantified by the normalized mean absolute difference (NMAD) and the NMAD values showed 2.3% for the Ku, 9.9% for the Ka, and 6.5% for the dual-frequency algorithms in global averages, while they were larger in the tropics than in high latitudes. Effects of the precipitation estimates from the CLWC assumption were examined further in terms of retrieval processes affected by the CLWC assumption. This study emphasizes the CLWC assumption provided more effects on the precipitation estimates through estimating path-integrated attenuation due to rain.

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Veljko Petković, Marko Orescanin, Pierre Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, and Ralph Ferraro

Abstract

A decades-long effort in observing precipitation from space has led to continuous improvements of satellite-derived passive microwave (PMW) large-scale precipitation products. However, due to a limited ability to relate observed radiometric signatures to precipitation type (convective and stratiform) and associated precipitation rate variability, PMW retrievals are prone to large systematic errors at instantaneous scales. The present study explores the use of deep learning approach in extracting the information content from PMW observation vectors to help identify precipitation types. A deep learning neural network model (DNN) is developed to retrieve the convective type in precipitating systems from PMW observations. A 12-month period of Global Precipitation Measurement mission Microwave Imager (GMI) observations is used as a dataset for model development and verification. The proposed DNN model is shown to accurately predict precipitation types for 85% of total precipitation volume. The model reduces precipitation rate bias associated with convective and stratiform precipitation in the GPM operational algorithm by a factor of 2 while preserving the correlation with reference precipitation rates, and is insensitive to surface type variability. Based on comparisons against currently used convective schemes, it is concluded that the neural network approach has the potential to address regime-specific PMW satellite precipitation biases affecting GPM operations.

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Olivier Hautecoeur and Régis Borde

Abstract

Atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) are derived operationally at EUMETSAT from the AVHRR/3 instrument on the Polar System satellite MetOp-A since 2011. The launch of MetOp-B in 2012 allowed for doubling of the production of AMVs over the polar regions using both MetOp-A and MetOp-B satellite data. In addition to the single AVHRR polar wind product, in 2014 EUMETSAT developed a new global AVHRR wind product extracted from a pair of MetOp-A and MetOp-B images. This new product is extracted using the large overlap in the imagery data obtained from the tandem configuration of the two satellites on the same orbital plane but with a phase difference of about 50 min. The tandem configuration also provides the possibility to derive wind vectors over polar areas using a triplet of AVHRR images, keeping the same time period necessary to derive the single MetOp polar wind product but allowing for a temporal consistency check in the calculation of the AMV quality index. Three different AMV products are currently extracted from AVHRR imagery at EUMETSAT, using two or three images taken by one or two satellites having different coverage and time integration.

This paper describes the scientific concept of the AVHRR wind extraction algorithm developed at EUMETSAT and presents the performances of the various AVHRR wind products. Intercomparisons of these different products highlight the role of the temporal gap between the images used to extract the wind and the impact of the consistency check on the calculation of the quality index.

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Minda Le, V. Chandrasekar, and Sounak Biswas

Abstract

The Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on board the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory has reflectivity measurements at two different frequencies: Ku and Ka bands. The dual-frequency ratio from the measurements has been used to perform rain type classification and microphysics retrieval in the current DPR level 2 algorithm. The dual-frequency classification module is a new module in the GPM level 2 algorithm. The module performs rain type classification and melting region detection using the vertical profile of the dual-frequency ratio. This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of the GPM dual-frequency classification module after launch. The evaluation process includes a comparison between the dual-frequency classification results and the TRMM legacy single-frequency results, as well as validation with ground radars.

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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Stephen Joseph Munchak, Sarah Ringerud, Liang Liao, Ziad Haddad, Bartie L. Kelley, and Steven F. McLaughlin

Abstract

In this paper, the operational Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission combined radar–radiometer algorithm is thoroughly described. The operational combined algorithm is designed to reduce uncertainties in GPM Core Observatory precipitation estimates by effectively integrating complementary information from the GPM Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) into an optimal, physically consistent precipitation product. Although similar in many respects to previously developed combined algorithms, the GPM combined algorithm has several unique features that are specifically designed to meet the GPM objectives of deriving, based on GPM Core Observatory information, accurate and physically consistent precipitation estimates from multiple spaceborne instruments, and ancillary environmental data from reanalyses. The algorithm features an optimal estimation framework based on a statistical formulation of the Gauss–Newton method, a parameterization for the nonuniform distribution of precipitation within the radar fields of view, a methodology to detect and account for multiple scattering in Ka-band DPR observations, and a statistical deconvolution technique that allows for an efficient sequential incorporation of radiometer information into DPR precipitation retrievals.

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Jun Awaka, Minda Le, V. Chandrasekar, Naofumi Yoshida, Tomohiko Higashiuwatoko, Takuji Kubota, and Toshio Iguchi

Abstract

The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) algorithms consist of modules. This paper describes version 4 (V4) of GPM DPR level 2 (L2) classification (CSF) modules, which consist of two single-frequency (SF) modules—that is, Ku-only and Ka-only modules—and a dual-frequency (DF) module. Each CSF module detects bright band (BB) and classifies rain into three major types, that is, stratiform, convective, and other. The Ku-only and Ka-only CSF modules use algorithms that are similar to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rain type classification algorithm 2A23. The DF CSF module uses a new method called the measured dual-frequency ratio (DFRm) method for the rain type classification and the detection of BB. It is shown that the Ku-only CSF module and the DF CSF module produce almost indistinguishable rain type counts in a statistical sense. It is also shown that the DFRm method in the DF CSF module improves the detection of BB.

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Eun-Kyoung Seo, Sung-Dae Yang, Mircea Grecu, Geun-Hyeok Ryu, Guosheng Liu, Svetla Hristova-Veleva, Yoo-Jeong Noh, Ziad Haddad, and Jinho Shin

Abstract

Using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations from storms collected over the oceans surrounding East Asia, during summer, a method of creating physically consistent cloud-radiation databases to support satellite radiometer retrievals is introduced. In this method, vertical profiles of numerical model-simulated cloud and precipitation fields are optimized against TRMM radar and radiometer observations using a hybrid empirical orthogonal function (EOF)–one-dimensional variational (1DVAR) approach.The optimization is based on comparing simulated to observed radar reflectivity profiles and the corresponding passive microwave observations at the frequencies of the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) instrument. To minimize the discrepancies between the actual and the synthetic observations, the simulated cloud and precipitation profiles are optimized by adjusting the contents of the hydrometeors. To reduce the dimension of the hydrometeor content profiles in the optimization, multivariate relations among hydrometeor species are used.

After applying the optimization method to modify the simulated clouds, the optimized cloud-radiation database has a joint distribution of reflectivity and associated brightness temperatures that is considerably closer to that observed by TRMM PR and TMI, especially at 85 GHz. This implies that the EOF–1DVAR approach can generate profiles with realistic distributions of frozen hydrometeors, such as snow and graupel. This approach may be similarly adapted to operate with the variety and capabilities of the passive microwave radiometers that compose the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation. Furthermore, it can be extended to other oceanic regions and seasons.

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F. Joseph Turk, Z. S. Haddad, and Y. You

Abstract

The joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is a constellation mission, centered upon observations from the core satellite dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and its companion passive microwave (MW) GPM Microwave Imager (GMI). One of the key challenges for GPM is how to link the information from the single DPR across all passive MW sensors in the constellation, to produce a globally consistent precipitation product. Commonly, the associated surface emissivity and environmental conditions at the satellite observation time are interpolated from ancillary data, such as global forecast models and emissivity climatology, and are used for radiative transfer simulations and cataloging/indexing the brightness temperature (TB) observations and simulations within a common MW precipitation retrieval framework.

In this manuscript, the feasibility of an update to the surface emissivity state at or near the satellite observation time, regardless of surface type, is examined for purposes of assisting these algorithms with specification of the surface and environmental conditions. Since the constellation MW radiometers routinely observe many more nonprecipitating conditions than precipitating conditions, a principal component analysis is developed from the noncloud GMI–DPR observations as a means to characterize the emissivity state vector and to consistently track the surface and environmental conditions. The method is demonstrated and applied over known complex surface conditions to probabilistically separate cloud and cloud-free scenes. The ability of the method to globally identify “self-similar” surface locations from the TB observations without requiring any ancillary knowledge of geographical location or time is demonstrated.

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Takuji Kubota, Toshio Iguchi, Masahiro Kojima, Liang Liao, Takeshi Masaki, Hiroshi Hanado, Robert Meneghini, and Riko Oki

Abstract

A statistical method to reduce the sidelobe clutter of the Ku-band precipitation radar (KuPR) of the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on board the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory is described and evaluated using DPR observations. The KuPR sidelobe clutter was much more severe than that of the Precipitation Radar on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and it has caused the misidentification of precipitation. The statistical method to reduce sidelobe clutter was constructed by subtracting the estimated sidelobe power, based upon a multiple regression model with explanatory variables of the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of surface, from the received power of the echo. The saturation of the NRCS at near-nadir angles, resulting from strong surface scattering, was considered in the calculation of the regression coefficients.

The method was implemented in the KuPR algorithm and applied to KuPR-observed data. It was found that the received power from sidelobe clutter over the ocean was largely reduced by using the developed method, although some of the received power from the sidelobe clutter still remained. From the statistical results of the evaluations, it was shown that the number of KuPR precipitation events in the clutter region, after the method was applied, was comparable to that in the clutter-free region. This confirms the reasonable performance of the method in removing sidelobe clutter. For further improving the effectiveness of the method, it is necessary to improve the consideration of the NRCS saturation, which will be explored in future work.

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Tomoaki Mega and Shoichi Shige

Abstract

The rain/no-rain classification for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) fails to detect rain over coasts, where the microwave footprint encompasses a mixture of radiometrically cold ocean and radiometrically warm land. A static land–ocean–coast mask is used to determine the surface type of each satellite footprint. The coast mask is conservatively wide to account for the largest footprints, preventing use of the more appropriate ocean or land algorithm for coastal regions.

The purpose of this paper is to develop a classification whereby the smallest region possible is defined as coast. In this endeavor, two major improvements are applied to the land–ocean–coast classification. First, the surface classification based on microwave footprints of the high frequency actually used in rain detection is employed. Second, the footprint area of the surface classification is established using an effective field-of-view size and scan geometry of the TMI. These improvements are applied to the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation TMI algorithm. The classification result is validated using the TRMM precipitation radar. The validation shows that these improvements lead to better rain detection in the coastal region.

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