Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 11,459 items for :

  • Journal of Climate x
  • All content x
Clear All
Yannick Peings, Zachary M. Labe, and Gudrun Magnusdottir

Abstract

This study presents results from the Polar Amplification Multimodel Intercomparison Project (PAMIP) single-year time-slice experiments that aim to isolate the atmospheric response to Arctic sea ice loss at global warming levels of +2°C. Using two general circulation models (GCMs), the ensemble size is increased up to 300 ensemble members, beyond the recommended 100 members. After partitioning the response in groups of 100 ensemble members, the reproducibility of the results is evaluated, with a focus on the response of the midlatitude jet streams in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. Both atmosphere-only and coupled ocean–atmosphere PAMIP experiments are analyzed. Substantial differences in the midlatitude response are found among the different experiment subsets, suggesting that 100-member ensembles are still significantly influenced by internal variability, which can mislead conclusions. Despite an overall stronger response, the coupled ocean–atmosphere runs exhibit greater spread due to additional ENSO-related internal variability when the ocean is interactive. The lack of consistency in the response is true for anomalies that are statistically significant according to Student’s t and false discovery rate tests. This is problematic for the multimodel assessment of the response, as some of the spread may be attributed to different model sensitivities whereas it is due to internal variability. We propose a method to overcome this consistency issue that allows for more robust conclusions when only 100 ensemble members are used.

Restricted access
Bor-Ting Jong, Mingfang Ting, and Richard Seager

Abstract

During the summer when an El Niño event is transitioning to a La Niña event, the extratropical teleconnections exert robust warming anomalies over the U.S. Midwest threatening agricultural production. This study assesses the performance of current climate models in capturing the prominent observed extratropical responses over North America during the transitioning La Niña summer, based on atmospheric general circulation model experiments and coupled models from the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME). The ensemble mean of the SST-forced experiments across the transitioning La Niña summers does not capture the robust warming in the Midwest. The SST-forced experiments do not produce consistent subtropical western Pacific (WP) negative precipitation anomalies and this leads to the poor simulations of extratropical teleconnections over North America. In the NMME models, with active air–sea interaction, the negative WP precipitation anomalies show better agreement across the models and with observations. However, the downstream wave train pattern and the resulting extratropical responses over North America exhibit large disagreement across the models and are consistently weaker than in observations. Furthermore, in these climate models, an anomalous anticyclone does not robustly translate into a warm anomaly over the Midwest, in disagreement with observations. This work suggests that, during the El Niño to La Niña transitioning summer, active air–sea interaction is important in simulating tropical precipitation over the WP. Nevertheless, skillful representations of the Rossby wave propagation and land–atmosphere processes in climate models are also essential for skillful simulations of extratropical responses over North America.

Restricted access
Chad W. Thackeray, Alex Hall, Mark D. Zelinka, and Christopher G. Fletcher

Abstract

An emergent constraint (EC) is a popular model evaluation technique, which offers the potential to reduce intermodel variability in projections of climate change. Two examples have previously been laid out for future surface albedo feedbacks (SAF) stemming from loss of Northern Hemisphere (NH) snow cover (SAFsnow) and sea ice (SAFice). These processes also have a modern-day analog that occurs each year as snow and sea ice retreat from their seasonal maxima, which is strongly correlated with future SAF across an ensemble of climate models. The newly released CMIP6 ensemble offers the chance to test prior constraints through out-of-sample verification, an important examination of EC robustness. Here, we show that the SAFsnow EC is equally strong in CMIP6 as it was in past generations, while the SAFice EC is also shown to exist in CMIP6, but with different, slightly weaker characteristics. We find that the CMIP6 mean NH SAF exhibits a global feedback of 0.25 ± 0.05 W m−2 K−1, or ~61% of the total global albedo feedback, largely in line with prior generations despite its increased climate sensitivity. The NH SAF can be broken down into similar contributions from snow and sea ice over the twenty-first century in CMIP6. Crucially, intermodel variability in seasonal SAFsnow and SAFice is largely unchanged from CMIP5 because of poor outlier simulations of snow cover, surface albedo, and sea ice thickness. These outliers act to mask the noted improvement from many models when it comes to SAFice, and to a lesser extent SAFsnow.

Restricted access
Zili Shen, Anmin Duan, Dongliang Li, and Jinxiao Li

Abstract

The capability of 36 models participating in phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) and their 24 CMIP5 counterparts in simulating the mean state and variability of Arctic sea ice cover for the period 1979–2014 is evaluated. In addition, a sea ice cover performance score for each CMIP5 and CMIP6 model is provided that can be used to reduce the spread in sea ice projections through applying weighted averages based on the ability of models to reproduce the historical sea ice state. Results show that the seasonal cycle of the Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) in the multimodel ensemble (MME) mean of the CMIP6 simulations agrees well with observations, with a MME mean error of less than 15% in any given month relative to the observations. CMIP6 has a smaller intermodel spread in climatological SIE values during summer months than its CMIP5 counterpart. In terms of the monthly SIE trends, the CMIP6 MME mean shows a substantial reduction in the positive bias relative to the observations compared with that of CMIP5. The spread of September SIE trends is very large, not only across different models but also across different ensemble members of the same model, indicating a strong influence of internal variability on SIE evolution. Based on the assumptions that the simulations of CMIP6 models are from the same distribution and that models have no bias in response to external forcing, we can infer that internal variability contributes to approximately 22% ± 5% of the September SIE trend over the period 1979–2014.

Open access
Chao Li, Francis Zwiers, Xuebin Zhang, Guilong Li, Ying Sun, and Michael Wehner

Abstract

This study presents an analysis of daily temperature and precipitation extremes with return periods ranging from 2 to 50 years in phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) multimodel ensemble of simulations. Judged by similarity with reanalyses, the new-generation models simulate the present-day temperature and precipitation extremes reasonably well. In line with previous CMIP simulations, the new simulations continue to project a large-scale picture of more frequent and more intense hot temperature extremes and precipitation extremes and vanishing cold extremes under continued global warming. Changes in temperature extremes outpace changes in global annual mean surface air temperature (GSAT) over most landmasses, while changes in precipitation extremes follow changes in GSAT globally at roughly the Clausius–Clapeyron rate of ~7% °C−1. Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes normalized with respect to GSAT do not depend strongly on the choice of forcing scenario or model climate sensitivity, and do not vary strongly over time, but with notable regional variations. Over the majority of land regions, the projected intensity increases and relative frequency increases tend to be larger for more extreme hot temperature and precipitation events than for weaker events. To obtain robust estimates of these changes at local scales, large initial-condition ensemble simulations are needed. Appropriate spatial pooling of data from neighboring grid cells within individual simulations can, to some extent, reduce the needed ensemble size.

Open access
Ju Liang, Jennifer L. Catto, Matthew Hawcroft, Kevin I. Hodges, Mou Leong Tan, and James M. Haywood

Abstract

Borneo vortices (BVs) are intense precipitating winter storms that develop over the equatorial South China Sea and strongly affect the weather and climate over the western Maritime Continent because of their association with deep convection and heavy rainfall. In this study, the ability of the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model 3–Global Coupled, version 3.1 (HadGEM3-GC3.1), global climate model to simulate the climatology of BVs at different horizontal resolutions is examined using an objective feature-tracking algorithm. The HadGEM3-GC3.1 at the N512 (25 km) horizontal resolution simulates BVs with well-represented characteristics, including their frequency, spatial distribution, and lower-tropospheric structures when compared with BVs identified in a climate reanalysis, whereas the BVs in the N96 (~135 km) and N216 (~65 km) simulations are much weaker and less frequent. Also, the N512 simulation better captures the contribution of BVs to the winter precipitation in Borneo and the Malay Peninsula when compared with precipitation from a reanalysis data and from observations, whereas the N96 and N216 simulations underestimate this contribution because of the overly weak low-level convergence of the simulated BVs. The N512 simulation also exhibits an improved ability to reproduce the modulation of BV activity by the occurrence of northeasterly cold surges and active phases of the Madden–Julian oscillation in the region, including increased BV track densities, intensities, and lifetimes. A sufficiently high model resolution is thus found to be important to realistically simulate the present-climate precipitation extremes associated with BVs and to study their possible changes in a warmer climate.

Open access
Xinyu Li, Riyu Lu, and Joong-Bae Ahn

Abstract

The summer British–Baikal Corridor pattern (BBC) and the Silk Road pattern (SRP) manifest as zonally oriented teleconnections in the high and middle latitudes, respectively, of the Eurasian continent. In this study, we investigate the combined effects of the BBC and SRP on surface air temperatures over the Eurasian continent. It is found that the combination of the BBC and SRP results in two kinds of well-organized, large-scale circulation anomalies: the zonal tripole pattern and the Ω-like pattern in the 200-hPa geopotential height anomalies. The zonal tripole pattern is characterized by opposite variations between western Siberia/western Asia and Europe/central Asia/central Siberia, and the Ω-like pattern manifests as consistent variations over midlatitude Europe, western Siberia, and central Asia. Correspondingly, the resultant large-scale surface air temperature anomalies feature the same zonal tripole pattern and Ω-like pattern, respectively. Further results indicate that these two patterns resemble the two leading modes of surface air temperature anomalies over the middle to high latitudes of Eurasia. This study indicates that the temperature variations in the middle and high latitudes of Eurasia can be coordinated and evidently explained by the combination of the BBC and SRP, and it contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the large-scale Eurasian climate variability.

Restricted access
Goodwin Gibbins and Joanna D. Haigh

Abstract

A recent paper by Kato and Rose reports a negative correlation between the annual mean entropy production rate of the climate and the absorption of solar radiation in the CERES SYN1deg dataset, using the simplifying assumption that the system is steady in time. It is shown here, however, that when the nonsteady interannual storage of entropy is accounted for, the dataset instead implies a positive correlation; that is, global entropy production rates increase with solar absorption. Furthermore, this increase is consistent with the response demonstrated by an energy balance model and a radiative–convective model. To motivate this updated analysis, a detailed discussion of the conceptual relationship between entropy production, entropy storage, and entropy flows is provided. The storage-corrected estimate for the mean global rate of entropy production in the CERES dataset from all irreversible transfer processes is 81.9 mW m−2 K−1 and from only nonradiative processes is 55.2 mW m−2 K−1 (observations from March 2000 to February 2018).

Open access
Johannes Mayer, Michael Mayer, and Leopold Haimberger

Abstract

This study uses advanced numerical and diagnostic methods to evaluate the atmospheric energy budget with the fifth major global reanalysis produced by ECMWF (ERA5) in combination with observed and reconstructed top of the atmosphere (TOA) energy fluxes for the period 1985–2018. We assess the meridional as well as ocean–land energy transport and perform internal consistency checks using mass-balanced data. Furthermore, the moisture and mass budgets in ERA5 are examined and compared with previous budget evaluations using ERA-Interim as well as observation-based estimates. Results show that peak annual mean meridional atmospheric energy transports in ERA5 (4.58 ± 0.07 PW in the Northern Hemisphere) are weaker compared to ERA-Interim (4.74 ± 0.09 PW), where the higher spatial and temporal resolution of ERA5 can be excluded as a possible reason. The ocean–land energy transport in ERA5 is reliable at least from 2000 onward (~2.5 PW) such that the imbalance between net TOA fluxes and lateral energy fluxes over land are on the order of ~1 W m−2. Spinup and spindown effects as revealed from inconsistencies between analyses and forecasts are generally smaller and temporally less variable in ERA5 compared to ERA-Interim. Evaluation of the moisture budget shows that the ocean–land moisture transport and parameterized freshwater fluxes agree well in ERA5, while there are large inconsistencies in ERA-Interim. Overall, the quality of the budgets derived from ERA5 is demonstrably better than estimates from ERA-Interim. Still some particularly sensitive budget quantities (e.g., precipitation, evaporation, and ocean–land energy transport) show apparent inhomogeneities, especially in the late 1990s, which warrant further investigation and need to be considered in studies of interannual variability and trends.

Open access
Ruoting Wu and Guixing Chen

Abstract

The Asian monsoon has large spatial and temporal variabilities in winds and precipitation. This study reveals that the Asian monsoon also exhibits pronounced regional differences in cloud regimes and cloud–rainfall relationship at a wide range of time scales from diurnal to seasonal to interannual. Over South (East) Asia, the convectively active regime of deep convection (CD) occurs frequently in June–September (March–September) with a late-afternoon peak (morning feature). The intermediate mixture (IM) regime over South Asia mainly occurs in summer and maximizes near noon. It develops as CD at late afternoon and dissipates as convective cirrus (CC) after midnight, showing a life cycle of thermal convection in response to solar radiation. Over East Asia, IM is dominant in cold seasons with a small diurnal cycle, indicating a prevalence of midlevel stratiform clouds. Further analyses show that CD and CC contribute 80%–90% of the rainfall amount and most of the intense rainfall in the two key regions. The CD-related rainfall also accounts for the pronounced diurnal cycles of summer rainfall with a late-afternoon peak (morning feature) over northern India (Southeast China). The afternoon CD-related rainfall mainly results from thermal convection under the moderate humidity but warm conditions particularly over northern India, while the morning CD-related rainfall over Southeast China is more related to the processes with high humidity. The CD/CC-related rainfall also exhibits large interannual variations that explain ~90% of the interannual variance of summer rainfall. The interannual variations of CD/CC occurrence are positively correlated with the moist southerlies and induced convergence, especially over Southeast China, suggesting a close relationship between cloud regimes and monsoon activities.

Open access