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Kelsey Emard
,
Olivia Cameron
,
William R. Wieder
,
Danica L. Lombardozzi
,
Rebecca Morss
, and
Negin Sobhani

Abstract

This paper analyzes findings from semistructured interviews and focus groups with 31 farmers in the Willamette Valley in which farmers were asked about their needs for climate data and about the usability of a range of outputs from the Community Earth System Model, version 2 (CESM2), for their soil management practices. Findings indicate that climate and soils data generated from CESM and other Earth system models (ESMs), despite their coarse spatial scale resolutions, can inform farmers’ long-term decisions, but that the data would be more usable if the outputs were provided in a format that allowed farmers to choose the variables and thresholds relevant to their particular needs and if ESMs incorporated farmer practices including residue removal, cover cropping, and tillage levels into the model operations so that farmers could better understand the impacts of their decisions. Findings also suggest that although there is a significant gap in the spatial resolution at which these global ESMs generate data and the spatial resolution needed by farmers to make most decisions, farmers are adept at making scalar adjustments to apply coarse-resolution data to the specifics of their own farm’s microclimate. Thus, our findings suggest that, to support agricultural decision-making, development priorities for ESMs should include developing better representations of agricultural management practices within the models and creating interactive data dashboards or platforms.

Open access
Breanna C. Beaver
,
Shannon L. Navy
, and
Jennifer L. Heisler

Abstract

To produce a climate-literate society willing to take action, students must be educated on the causes, changes, impacts, and solutions of climate change. One way to ensure students are educated on climate change is to have robust science standards. However, little is known about the collective climate change standards in the United States. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to conduct an analysis of the U.S. K–12 science standards to uncover where the climate change standards are located in different grade levels and the extent to which the collective U.S. curriculum covers topics of climate change. This study was a qualitative content analysis of the U.S. K–12 climate change standards. The results show that most U.S. climate change standards are found within the high school grade levels and Earth and space science domains. All U.S. states address topics of climate change within their standards; however, general mentions of climate change were cited most often. Finally, the majority of states address both natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change. Implications for policymakers and educators are included.

Restricted access
Meng Wang
,
Cheng Huang
, and
Qingguo Zhao

Abstract

The impacts of climate change on health are a critical public health issue, but the association between extreme temperatures and birth outcomes remains poorly understood. This paper links over 1 million birth records from Dongguan, China, between 2004 and 2013, to meteorological data. We investigate the relationship between extreme temperatures and birth outcomes and explore the heterogeneity among different demographic and socioeconomic factors, including maternal migrant status, education level, and mode of delivery. We find that one percentage increase in the number of days exposed to extreme heat during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in birth weight of 2.31 g and a 2% increase in odds of low birth weight (LBW), while exposure to extreme cold temperatures is associated with a reduction in birth weight (0.66 g) and an increase in the risk of LBW (1%). The association between extreme high temperatures and adverse birth outcomes is stronger for groups with disadvantaged social status. Specifically, the migrant group (for extreme heat exposure, local residents, −0.37 g; intraprovincial migrants, −2.75 g; out-of-province migrants, −2.49 g), the less-educated group (for extreme heat exposure, middle school or below, −2.47 g; high school or above, −1.66 g), and the group with vaginal birth [for extreme heat exposure, cesarean sections (C-sections), −1.56 g; vaginal birth, −2.62 g] are more sensitive to extreme weather conditions. Our study provides further evidence about the association of extreme temperatures with birth outcomes and for vulnerable groups of pregnant women.

Restricted access
Tomáš Púčik
,
David Rýva
,
Miloslav Staněk
,
Miroslav Šinger
,
Pieter Groenemeijer
,
Georg Pistotnik
,
Rainer Kaltenberger
,
Miloš Zich
,
Jan Koláček
, and
Alois Holzer

Abstract

A violent tornado occurred in Czechia on 24 June 2021, killing six and causing at least 576 injuries. There were more indirect than direct injuries. The tornado was rated 4 on the international Fujita scale (IF4) using a draft version of the IF scale. This was the first violent tornado in Czechia and one of only 17 violent, i.e., (I)F4 or higher, tornadoes that occurred in Europe since 1950. The tornado reached a width of 3.5 km, the widest on record in Europe. The case presents an important opportunity to investigate the impacts of such a strong tornado in the area, where they are rare, no tornado warnings are issued, and where the building standards are different from the typically investigated tornadoes in the United States. We discuss challenges in organizing the damage survey, which took 3 days and involved meteorologists from three countries. A wind damage survey guide to aid mitigating these was written by the European Severe Storms Laboratory and initiated the development of a wind damage surveying app. The damage survey showed that most of the inhabited buildings built using heavy masonry and rigid ceilings did not collapse in IF2/3 winds, but only with IF4 winds. Eyewitness reports collected after the tornado show that many people were not aware of the risk associated with the tornado. Eventually, most people tried to shelter in the most secure part of the house, but it was often too late. This case highlights the need for better communication of tornado risk to the public in Europe.

Open access
Jordi Mazon
,
David Pino
, and
Daniel López

Abstract

This study explores the correlation between weather and the perception of urban cleanliness across the 47 largest cities in Spain. Utilizing survey data conducted by the national Consumers and Users Organization (OCU) in 2015, 2019, and 2023 to assess cleanliness perceptions, we analyze potential associations with precipitation and temperature recorded by weather stations of the Spanish Meteorological Agency. Additionally, we consider computed values of the De Martonne aridity index.

The OCU data reveal regional disparities in perceived cleanliness quality. Higher cleanliness scores are obtained in cities located in the northern and north-central regions of Spain, characterized by humid and super-humid climates according to the De Martonne index. Conversely, lower cleanliness ratings are given to cities in the southern and eastern regions of Spain, where a Mediterranean climate and lower aridity index values prevail. In conducting a statistical analysis on the perception of cleanliness and variables related to precipitation and temperature, the results of the chi-square and linear correlation tests found no strong statistical correlation, although a tendency is observed. Cities with higher annual precipitation and lower values of average annual temperature tend to receive better cleanliness ratings, while drier and warmer cities exhibit the worst values of perceived urban cleanliness.

Furthermore, our findings indicate that the Gompertz model effectively captures a strong statistical correlation in the relationship between cleanliness perception and the De Martonne index: As aridity increases, cleanliness perception decreases. These results are relevant for the development of future cleaning methods and systems, particularly in light of the climate change scenarios that are anticipated in the Mediterranean region due to warmer and drier conditions and, consequently, an increase in aridity.

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Aneela Batool
and
Malik Ghulam Behlol

Abstract

This study aims to examine the Climate Change Education (CCE) provision in the Five grade textbooks [Science & Social Studies] and the competence of teachers in teaching CCE in primary girls’ schools in Skardu-Baltistan. It is a mixed-method research that uses both qualitative and quantitative approaches to gather data. The first phase of the study involved collecting qualitative data to examine the provision of CCE content in selected textbooks taught in grade five. The researcher adapted an interview questionnaire to assess the competence of teachers teaching in 38 schools. The provision of themes and topics based on the seven Principles of Climate literacy given by USGCRP (2009) was identified by using latent content analysis (LCA). The study concludes that Science and Social Study textbooks lack the incorporation of CCE content of principles 1, 4, 6 & 7. Furthermore, the majority of teachers have not received training to use digital media, apply activity-based methods to engage campus and community support for CCE. The study also found that the selected schools are missing school planting campaigns, CCE committees, and CCE walks. Above all, the respondents possess conflicting views about climate change as a natural or human-contributed phenomenon.

Restricted access
Rattanawan Mungkung
,
Piyatida Jaieim
, and
Panit Chancharoonpong

Abstract

Quantifying the total GHG emissions along the whole value chain is essential for effective greenhouse gas management. Two types of the most popular restaurants in Thailand were included in this study: (1) a restaurant that specialized in Northeastern Thai cuisine with an area of 94 m2 and 41,000 clients per year; and (2) a restaurant serving Japanese-Thai fusion meals with an area of 284 m2 with 59,000 clients per year. Notably, the scope 3 GHG emissions were the highest (76–81% of total emissions). The main contributors at both restaurants were raw material acquisition, followed by transportation of raw materials and waste management. It was suggested that the restaurants should not overlook the major sources of scope 3 GHG emissions, especially in food procurement, transportation from suppliers, and waste management. GHG management measures that could be applied include: using local food ingredients, buying raw materials from nearby locations, simulating transport routes to minimize the distance of transport, and separating food wastes and sorting recyclable packaging wastes for further use. In addition, the restaurants could flag low-carbon footprint meals on their menus to engage their customers in contributing to GHG reductions.

Restricted access
Alejandro Jaramillo
and
Christian Dominguez

Abstract

Lightning around the world poses a significant threat to life, infrastructure, and economic sectors. This study evaluates lightning risk at the municipal level in Mexico, recognizing the interplay of hazard and vulnerability in risk estimation. Despite declining lightning-related fatalities, possibly attributed to demographic shifts and improved urban infrastructure, persistent social vulnerability exists, particularly among rural populations engaged in labor-intensive agriculture with lower education levels. We estimate a risk map for lightning-related fatality risk in Mexico, where we identify high-risk regions along the Sierra Madre Occidental, the Pacific coast, central and southeastern Mexico, marked by elevated lightning days and social vulnerability. The risk map integrates hazard and social vulnerability, capturing the distribution of fatality incidents, and it reveals that 82.1% of incidents occurred in municipalities categorized as “high” or “very high” risk. This result emphasizes the need to consider both physical hazard and social vulnerability for a comprehensive assessment of lightning risk. This study contributes to understanding lightning risk in Mexico, providing crucial insights at the municipality level for informing policymaking and targeting risk mitigation strategies. By highlighting the interrelation of hazard and social vulnerability, this research aligns with broader goals of enhancing local resilience and safety in the face of natural hazards, highlighting the ongoing need for disaster risk reduction efforts.

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Free access
Deniss J. Martinez
,
Alison M. Meadow
,
Beth Rose Middleton Manning
, and
Julie Maldonado

Abstract

Climate and weather-related disasters in California illustrate the need for immediate climate change action—both mitigation to reduce impacts and adaptation to protect our communities, relatives, and the ecosystems we depend upon. Indigenous frontline communities face even greater threats from climate impacts due to historical and political legacies of environmental injustice. Climate change adaptation actions have proven challenging to implement as communities struggle to access necessary climate data at appropriate scales, identify effective strategies that address community priorities, and obtain resources to act at a whole-community level. In this paper, we present three examples of Indigenous communities in California that have used a climate justice approach to climate change adaptation. These communities are drawing upon community knowledge and expertise to address the challenges of adaptation planning and taking actions that center community priorities. The three cases address emergency preparation and response, cultural burning and fire management, and community organizing and social cohesion. Across these spheres, they illustrate the ways in which a community-based and climate justice-focused approach to adaptation can be effective in addressing current threats while also addressing the legacy of imposed, socially constructed vulnerability and environmental injustices. Because we recognize the need for multiple knowledges and skills in adaptation actions, we include recommendations that have emerged based on what has been learned through these long-standing and engaged participatory research collaborations for climate scientists who wish to contribute to climate justice-focused adaptation efforts by using scientific data to support—not supplant—community efforts, target funding toward genuine community engagement and adaptation actions, and become aware of the historical and political legacies that created the climate vulnerabilities and injustices evident today.

Open access