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Shoobhangi Tyagi
,
Sandeep Sahany
,
Dharmendra Saraswat
,
Saroj Kanta Mishra
,
Amlendu Dubey
, and
Dev Niyogi

Abstract

The 2015 Paris Agreement outlined limiting global warming to 1.5°C relative to the preindustrial levels, necessitating the development of regional climate adaptation strategies. This requires a comprehensive understanding of how the 1.5°C rise in global temperature would translate across different regions. However, its implications on critical agricultural components, particularly blue and green water, remains understudied. This study investigates these changes using a rice-growing semiarid region in central India. The aim of this study is to initiate a discussion on the regional response of blue–green water at specific warming levels. Using different global climate models (GCMs) and shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs), the study estimated the time frame for reaching the 1.5°C warming level and subsequently investigated changes in regional precipitation, temperature, surface runoff, and blue–green water. The results reveal projected reductions in precipitation and surface runoff by approximately 5%–15% and 10%–35%, respectively, along with decrease in green and blue water by approximately 12%–1% and 40%–10%, respectively, across different GCMs and SSPs. These findings highlight 1) the susceptibility of blue–green water to the 1.5°C global warming level, 2) the narrow time frame available for the region to develop the adaptive strategies, 3) the influence of warm semiarid climate on the blue–green water dynamics, and 4) the uncertainty associated with regional assessment of a specific warming level. This study provides new insights for shaping food security strategies over highly vulnerable semiarid regions and is expected to serve as a reference for other regional blue/green water assessment studies.

Significance Statement

This study helps to drive home the message that a global agreement to limit the warming level to 1.5°C does not mean local-scale temperature (and associated hydrological) impacts would be limited to those levels. The regional changes can be more exaggerated and uncertain, and they also depend on the choice of the climate model and region. Therefore, local-scale vulnerability assessments must focus on the multidimensional assessment of a 1.5°C warmer world involving different climate models, climate-sensitive components, and regions. This information is relevant for managing vulnerable agricultural systems. This study is among the first to investigate the critical agricultural components such as the blue–green water over a semiarid Indian region, and the findings and methodology are expected to be transferable for performing regional-scale assessments elsewhere.

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Martin P. Hoerling
,
Jon K. Eischeid
,
Henry F. Diaz
,
Balaji Rajagopolan
, and
Eric Kuhn

Abstract

Of concern to Colorado River management, as operating guidelines post-2026 are being considered, is whether water resource recovery from low flows during 2000–2020 is possible. Here we analyze new simulations from the sixth generation of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) to determine plausible climate impacts on Colorado River flows for 2026–2050 when revised guidelines would operate. We constrain projected flows for Lee Ferry, the gauge through which 85% of the river flow passes, using its estimated sensitivity to meteorological variability together with CMIP6 projected precipitation and temperature changes. The critical importance of precipitation, especially its natural variability, is emphasized. Model projections indicate increased precipitation in the Upper Colorado River basin due to climate change, which alone increases river flows 5%–7% (relative to a 2000–2020 climatology). Depending on the river’s temperature sensitivity, this wet signal compensates some, if not all, of the depleting effects from basin warming. Considerable internal decadal precipitation variability (~5% of the climatological mean) is demonstrated, driving a greater range of plausible Colorado River flow changes for 2026–2050 than previously surmised from treatment of temperature impacts alone: the overall precipitation-induced Lee Ferry flow changes span −25% to +40% contrasting with a −30% to −5% range from expected warming effects only. Consequently, extreme low and high flows are more likely. Lee Ferry flow projections, conditioned on initial drought states akin to 2000–2020, reveal substantial recovery odds for water resources, albeit with elevated risks of even further flow declines than in recent decades.

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Gong Shang
,
Zhiwei Zhang
,
Shoude Guan
,
Xiaodong Huang
,
Chun Zhou
,
Wei Zhao
, and
Jiwei Tian

Abstract

Diapycnal mixing in the South China Sea (SCS) is commonly attributed to the vertical shear variance (S2) of horizontal ocean current velocity, but the seasonal modulation of the S2 is still poorly understood due to the scarcity of long-term velocity observations. Here, this issue is explored in detail based on nearly 10-year-long ADCP velocity data from a mooring in the northern SCS. We find that the S2 in the northern SCS exhibits significant seasonal variations at both the near-surface (90–180 m) and sub-surface (180–400 m) layers, but their seasonal cycles and modulation mechanisms are quite different. For the near-surface layer, the S2 is stronger in late summer, autumn, and winter but weaker in spring and early summer, while in the sub-surface layer, it is much stronger in winter than other seasons. Further analysis suggests that in the near-surface layer, the stronger S2 in autumn and winter is primarily caused by typhoons-induced near-inertial internal waves (NIWs) and the large sub-inertial velocity shear of the baroclinic mesoscale eddies, respectively. With respect to the sub-surface layer, the enhanced wintertime S2 is primarily associated with the “inertial chimney” effect of anticyclonic eddies, trapping wind-forced downward-propagating NIWs and significantly increasing the near-inertial shear at the critical layer. The findings in this study highlight the potentially important roles of mesoscale eddies and NIWs in modulating the seasonality of upper-ocean mixing in the northern SCS. This modulation is attributed not only to the strong shear of these features but also to their interactions.

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Matthew H. Hitchman
and
Shellie M. Rowe

Abstract

On 10 August 2020, a derecho caused widespread damage across Iowa and Illinois. Des Moines station data show that the arrival of the gust front was characterized by an abrupt shift to northerly flow, exceeding 22 m/s for ~ 20 min. To test the hypothesis that this northerly jet is associated with a horizontal potential vorticity (PV) dipole in the lower troposphere, we investigated the structure of PV in the University of Wisconsin Nonhydrostratic Modeling System (UWNMS) and of absolute vorticity in High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) forecast analyses.

This structure is described here for the first time. The negative PV member coincides with the downdraft, while the positive PV member coincides with the updraft, with a northerly jet between. The westerly inflow jet descends anticyclonically in the downdraft, joining with northerly flow from the surface anticyclone. The resulting northerly outflow jet creates the trailing comma-shaped radar echo.

The speed of propagation of the derecho is similar to the westerly wind maximum in the 3-5 km layer associated with the approaching synoptic cyclone, which acts as a steering level for resonant amplification. Idealized diagrams and 3D isosurfaces illustrate the commonality of the PV dipole / northerly jet structure. Differences in this structure among three model states are related to low-level wind shear theory. The PV dipole coincides with the pattern of diabatic stretching tendency, which shifts westward and downward relative to the updraft/downdraft with increasing tilt. The PV dipole can contribute toward dynamical stability in a derecho.

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Anand Gnanadesikan
,
Gianluca Fabiani
,
Jingwen Liu
,
Renske Gelderloos
,
G. Jay Brett
,
Yannis Kevrekidis
,
Thomas Haine
,
Marie-Aude Pradal
,
Constaninos Siettos
, and
Jennifer Sleeman

Abstract

In the modern ocean, transformation of light surface waters to dense deep waters primarily occurs in the Atlantic basin rather than in the North Pacific or Southern Oceans. The reasons for this remain unclear, as both models and paleoclimatic observations suggest that sinking can sometimes occur in the Pacific. We present a six-box model of the overturning that combines insights from a number of previous studies. A key determinant of the overturning configuration in our model is whether the Antarctic Intermediate Waters are denser than northern subpolar waters, something that depends on the magnitude and configuration of atmospheric freshwater transport. For the modern ocean, we find that although the interbasin atmospheric freshwater flux suppresses Pacific sinking, the poleward atmospheric freshwater flux out of the subtropics enhances it. When atmospheric temperatures are held fixed, North Pacific overturning can strengthen with either increases or decreases in the hydrological cycle, as well as under reversal of the interbasin freshwater flux. Tipping-point behavior, where small changes in the hydrological cycle may cause the dominant location of densification of light waters to switch between basins and the magnitude of overturning within a basin to exhibit large jumps, is seen in both transient and equilibrium states. This behavior is modulated by parameters such as the poorly constrained lateral diffusive mixing coefficient. If hydrological cycle amplitude is varied consistently with global temperature, northern polar amplification is necessary for the Atlantic overturning to collapse. Certain qualitative insights incorporated in the model can be validated using a fully-coupled climate model.

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Yusen Yuan
,
Lixin Wang
,
Zhongwang Wei
,
Hoori Ajami
,
Honglang Wang
, and
Taisheng Du

Abstract

The isotopic composition of evapotranspiration δ ET is a crucial parameter in isotope-based evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning and moisture recycling studies. The Keeling plot method is the most prevalent method to calculate δ ET, though it contains large extrapolated uncertainties from the least squares regression. Traditional Keeling regression uses the mean point of individual measurements. Here, a modified Keeling plot framework was proposed using the median point of individual measurements. We tested the δ ET uncertainty using the mean point [σ ET (mean)] and median point [σ ET (median)]. Multiple resolutions of input and output data from six independent sites were used to test the performance of the two methods. The σ ET (mean) would be greater than σ ET (median) when the mean value of inverse vapor concentration ( 1 / C υ ¯ ) is greater than the median value of inverse vapor concentration [ 1 / C υ ( median ) ]. When applying the filter of r 2 > 0.8, around 70% of σ ET (mean) was greater than σ ET (median). This phenomenon might be due to the normality of the vapor concentration Cυ producing the asymmetric distribution of 1/Cυ . The median method could perform significantly better than the mean method when inputting high-resolution measurements (e.g., 1 Hz) and when the water vapor concentration Cυ is relatively low. Compared to the mean method, applying the median method could on average reduce 6.88% of ET partitioning uncertainties and could on average reduce 9.00% of moisture recycling uncertainties. This study provided a new insight of the Keeling plot method and emphasized handling model output uncertainty from multiple perspectives instead of only from input parameters.

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Travis Griggs
,
James Flynn
,
Yuxuan Wang
,
Sergio Alvarez
,
Michael Comas
, and
Paul Walter

Abstract

Photochemical modeling outputs showing high ozone concentrations over the Gulf of Mexico and Galveston Bay during ozone episodes in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria (HGB) region have not been previously verified using in situ observations. Such data were collected systematically, for the first time, from July to October 2021 from three boats deployed for the Galveston Offshore Ozone Observations (GO3) and Tracking Aerosol Convection Interactions Experiment—Air Quality (TRACER-AQ) field campaigns. A pontoon boat and a commercial vessel operated in Galveston Bay, while another commercial vessel operated in the Gulf of Mexico offshore of Galveston. All three boats had continuously operating sampling systems that included ozone analyzers and weather stations, and the two boats operating in Galveston Bay had a ceilometer. The sampling systems operated autonomously on the two commercial boats as they traveled their daily routes. Thirty-seven ozonesondes were launched over water on forecast high ozone days in Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. During the campaigns, multiple periods of ozone exceeding 100 ppbv were observed over water in Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. These events included previously identified conditions for high ozone events in the HGB region, such as the bay/sea-breeze recirculation and postfrontal environments, as well as a localized coastal high ozone event after the passing of a tropical system (Hurricane Nicholas) that was not well forecast.

Open access
Morgan E O’Neill
and
Daniel R. Chavas
Open access
Teryn J. Mueller
,
Christina M. Patricola
, and
Emily Bercos-Hickey

Abstract

The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences seasonal Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) activity by impacting environmental conditions important for TC genesis. However, the influence of future climate change on the teleconnection between ENSO and Atlantic TCs is uncertain, as climate change is expected to impact both ENSO and the mean climate state. We used the Weather Research and Forecasting model on a tropical channel domain to simulate 5-member ensembles of Atlantic TC seasons in historical and future climates under different ENSO conditions. Experiments were forced with idealized sea-surface temperature configurations based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble representing: a monthly-varying climatology, Eastern Pacific El Niño, Central Pacific El Niño, and La Niña. The historical simulations produced fewer Atlantic TCs during Eastern Pacific El Niño compared to Central Pacific El Niño, consistent with observations and other modeling studies. For each ENSO state, the future simulations produced a similar teleconnection with Atlantic TCs as in the historical simulations. Specifically, La Niña continues to enhance Atlantic TC activity, and El Niño continues to suppress Atlantic TCs, with greater suppression during Eastern Pacific El Niño compared to Central Pacific El Niño. In addition, we found a decrease in Atlantic TC frequency in the future relative to historical regardless of ENSO state, which was associated with a future increase in northern tropical Atlantic vertical wind shear and a future decrease in the zonal tropical Pacific SST gradient, corresponding to a more El Niño-like mean climate state. Our results indicate that ENSO will remain useful for seasonal Atlantic TC prediction in the future.

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Jingjie Yu
,
Bolan Gan
,
Haiyuan Yang
,
Zhaohui Chen
,
Lixiao Xu
, and
Lixin Wu

Abstract

Subtropical mode water (STMW) is a thick layer of water mass characterized by homogeneous properties within the main pycnocline, important for oceanic oxygen utilization, carbon sequestration, and climate regulation. North Pacific STMW is formed in the Kuroshio Extension region, where vigorous mesoscale eddies strongly interact with the atmosphere. However, it remains unknown how such mesoscale ocean-atmosphere (MOA) coupling affects the STMW formation. By conducting twin simulations with an eddy-resolving global climate model, we find that approximately 25% more STMW is formed with the MOA coupling than without it. This is attributable to a significant increase in ocean latent heat release primarily driven by higher wind speed over the STMW formation region, which is associated with the southward deflection of storm tracks in response to oceanic mesoscale imprints. Such enhanced surface latent heat loss overwhelms the stronger upper-ocean restratification induced by vertical eddy and turbulent heat transport, leading to the formation of colder and denser STMW in the presence of MOA coupling. Further investigation of a multi-model and multi-resolution ensemble of global coupled models reveals that the agreement between the STMW simulation in eddy-present/rich coupled models and observations is superior to that of eddy-free ones, likely due to more realistic representation of MOA coupling. However, the ocean-alone model simulations show significant limitations in improving STMW production, even with refined model resolution. This indicates the importance of incorporating the MOA coupling into Earth system models to alleviate biases in STMW and associated climatic and biogeochemical impacts.

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