Waves to Weather (W2W)


This special collection comprises the results of the Collaborative Research Center “Waves to Weather” (W2W), which is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation) for a period of 4 years with possible extensions up to 12 years. The main topic of W2W is predictability and prediction of weather. The current scientific themes of W2W are "Upscale error growth", "Cloud-scale uncertainties", and "Predictability of local weather". It includes theoretical studies, numerical modeling, and process studies based in part on cutting edge statistical methods and visualization tools, NWP models and data collected during the field campaign NAWDEX.

The aim of W2W is to identify the limits of predictability of weather and to produce the best forecasts that are physically possible. The focus of W2W is on the most important causes of remaining uncertainties in weather prediction, which include:

  • the quick upscale growth of forecast errors from insufficiently resolved or represented processes like convection or boundary layer mixing, which modify synoptic-scale waves,
  • our limited understanding of processes in clouds, and
  • the influence of local factors on weather that influence the predictability associated with larger-scale wave disturbances.

W2W addresses these three areas in a concerted effort involving contributions from the disciplines of atmospheric dynamics, cloud physics, statistics, inverse methods and visualization.

W2W uses, and further develops a broad range of tools, including numerical models with detailed treatment of cloud processes and aerosols, and ensemble forecasts with sophisticated statistical post-processing to describe uncertainty. Improved insight has already been gained through the development of new interactive visualization methods, that enable rapid exploration of forecast ensembles to identify the sources and evolution of uncertainty in meteorologically significant features, as well as through the unprecedented dataset collected during the international field campaign NAWDEX.

W2W currently consist of eighteen individual scientific projects located in Germany (Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, German Aerospace Center (DLR) Oberpfaffenhofen, and University of Heidelberg).

Collection organizers:
Audine Laurian and George C. Craig, Meteorological Institute, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany

Waves to Weather (W2W)

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Joaquim G. Pinto, Florian Pantillon, Patrick Ludwig, Madeleine-Sophie Déroche, Giovanni Leoncini, Christoph C. Raible, Len C. Shaffrey, and David B. Stephenson
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Andreas Schäfler, George Craig, Heini Wernli, Philippe Arbogast, James D. Doyle, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, John Methven, Gwendal Rivière, Felix Ament, Maxi Boettcher, Martina Bramberger, Quitterie Cazenave, Richard Cotton, Susanne Crewell, Julien Delanoë, Andreas Dörnbrack, André Ehrlich, Florian Ewald, Andreas Fix, Christian M. Grams, Suzanne L. Gray, Hans Grob, Silke Groß, Martin Hagen, Ben Harvey, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Christian Lemmerz, Oliver Lux, Linus Magnusson, Bernhard Mayer, Mario Mech, Richard Moore, Jacques Pelon, Julian Quinting, Stephan Rahm, Markus Rapp, Marc Rautenhaus, Oliver Reitebuch, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Harald Sodemann, Thomas Spengler, Geraint Vaughan, Manfred Wendisch, Martin Wirth, Benjamin Witschas, Kevin Wolf, and Tobias Zinner


The North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment (NAWDEX) explored the impact of diabatic processes on disturbances of the jet stream and their influence on downstream high-impact weather through the deployment of four research aircraft, each with a sophisticated set of remote sensing and in situ instruments, and coordinated with a suite of ground-based measurements. A total of 49 research flights were performed, including, for the first time, coordinated flights of the four aircraft: the German High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO), the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) Dassault Falcon 20, the French Service des Avions Français Instrumentés pour la Recherche en Environnement (SAFIRE) Falcon 20, and the British Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe 146. The observation period from 17 September to 22 October 2016 with frequently occurring extratropical and tropical cyclones was ideal for investigating midlatitude weather over the North Atlantic. NAWDEX featured three sequences of upstream triggers of waveguide disturbances, as well as their dynamic interaction with the jet stream, subsequent development, and eventual downstream weather impact on Europe. Examples are presented to highlight the wealth of phenomena that were sampled, the comprehensive coverage, and the multifaceted nature of the measurements. This unique dataset forms the basis for future case studies and detailed evaluations of weather and climate predictions to improve our understanding of diabatic influences on Rossby waves and the downstream impacts of weather systems affecting Europe.

Open access