Waves to Weather (W2W)


This special collection comprises the results of the Collaborative Research Center “Waves to Weather” (W2W), which is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation) for a period of 4 years with possible extensions up to 12 years. The main topic of W2W is predictability and prediction of weather. The current scientific themes of W2W are "Upscale error growth", "Cloud-scale uncertainties", and "Predictability of local weather". It includes theoretical studies, numerical modeling, and process studies based in part on cutting edge statistical methods and visualization tools, NWP models and data collected during the field campaign NAWDEX.

The aim of W2W is to identify the limits of predictability of weather and to produce the best forecasts that are physically possible. The focus of W2W is on the most important causes of remaining uncertainties in weather prediction, which include:

  • the quick upscale growth of forecast errors from insufficiently resolved or represented processes like convection or boundary layer mixing, which modify synoptic-scale waves,
  • our limited understanding of processes in clouds, and
  • the influence of local factors on weather that influence the predictability associated with larger-scale wave disturbances.

W2W addresses these three areas in a concerted effort involving contributions from the disciplines of atmospheric dynamics, cloud physics, statistics, inverse methods and visualization.

W2W uses, and further develops a broad range of tools, including numerical models with detailed treatment of cloud processes and aerosols, and ensemble forecasts with sophisticated statistical post-processing to describe uncertainty. Improved insight has already been gained through the development of new interactive visualization methods, that enable rapid exploration of forecast ensembles to identify the sources and evolution of uncertainty in meteorologically significant features, as well as through the unprecedented dataset collected during the international field campaign NAWDEX.

W2W currently consist of eighteen individual scientific projects located in Germany (Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, German Aerospace Center (DLR) Oberpfaffenhofen, and University of Heidelberg).

Collection organizers:
Audine Laurian and George C. Craig, Meteorological Institute, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany

Waves to Weather (W2W)

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for :

  • Journal of Climate x
  • All content x
Clear All
Georgios Fragkoulidis and Volkmar Wirth


Transient Rossby wave packets (RWPs) are a prominent feature of the synoptic to planetary upper-tropospheric flow at the midlatitudes. Their demonstrated role in various aspects of weather and climate prompts the investigation of characteristic properties like their amplitude, phase speed, and group velocity. Traditional frameworks for the diagnosis of the two latter have so far remained nonlocal in space or time, thus preventing a detailed view on the spatiotemporal evolution of RWPs. The present work proposes a method for the diagnosis of horizontal Rossby wave phase speed and group velocity locally in space and time. The approach is based on the analytic signal of upper-tropospheric meridional wind velocity and RWP amplitude, respectively. The new diagnostics are first applied to illustrative examples from a barotropic model simulation and the real atmosphere. The main seasonal and interregional variability features of RWP amplitude, phase speed, and group velocity are then explored using ERA5 reanalysis data for the time period 1979–2018. Apparent differences and similarities in these respects between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are also discussed. Finally, the role of RWP amplitude and phase speed during central European short-lived and persistent temperature extremes is investigated based on changes of their distribution compared to the climatology of the region. The proposed diagnostics offer insight into the spatiotemporal variability of RWP properties and allow the evaluation of their implications at low computational demands.

Open access
Andreas Schlueter, Andreas H. Fink, and Peter Knippertz


This study presents the first systematic comparison of the dynamics and thermodynamics associated with all major tropical wave types causing rainfall modulation over northern tropical Africa: the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), equatorial Rossby waves (ERs), tropical disturbances (TDs, including African easterly waves), Kelvin waves, mixed Rossby–gravity waves (MRGs), and eastward inertio-gravity waves (EIGs). Reanalysis and radiosonde data were analyzed for the period 1981–2013 based on space–time filtering of outgoing longwave radiation. The identified circulation patterns are largely consistent with theory. The slow modes, MJO and ER, mainly impact precipitable water, whereas the faster TDs, Kelvin waves, and MRGs primarily modulate moisture convergence. Monsoonal inflow intensifies during wet phases of the MJO, ERs, and MRGs, associated with a northward shift of the intertropical discontinuity for MJO and ERs. This study reveals that MRGs over Africa have a distinct dynamical structure that differs significantly from AEWs. During passages of vertically tilted imbalanced wave modes, such as the MJO, TDs, Kelvin waves, and partly MRG waves, increased vertical wind shear and improved conditions for up- and downdrafts facilitate the organization of mesoscale convective systems. The balanced ERs are not tilted, and rainfall is triggered by large-scale moistening and stratiform lifting. The MJO and ERs interact with intraseasonal variations of the Indian monsoon and extratropical Rossby wave trains. The latter causes a trough over the Atlas Mountains associated with a tropical plume and rainfall over the Sahara. The presented results unveil which dynamical processes need to be modeled realistically to represent the coupling between tropical waves and rainfall in northern tropical Africa.

Open access
Andreas Schlueter, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, and Peter Vogel


Low-latitude rainfall variability on the daily to intraseasonal time scale is often related to tropical waves, including convectively coupled equatorial waves, the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), and tropical disturbances (TDs). Despite the importance of rainfall variability for vulnerable societies in tropical Africa, the relative influence of tropical waves for this region is largely unknown. This article presents the first systematic comparison of the impact of six wave types on precipitation over northern tropical Africa during the transition and full monsoon seasons, using two satellite products and a dense rain gauge network. Composites of rainfall anomalies in the different datasets show comparable modulation intensities in the West Sahel and at the Guinea Coast, varying from less than 2 to above 7 mm day−1 depending on the wave type. African easterly waves (AEWs) and Kelvin waves dominate the 3-hourly to daily time scale and explain 10%–30% locally. On longer time scales (7–20 days), only the MJO and equatorial Rossby (ER) waves remain as modulating factors and explain about up to one-third of rainfall variability. Eastward inertio-gravity waves and mixed Rossby–gravity (MRG) waves are comparatively unimportant. An analysis of wave superposition shows that low-frequency waves (MJO, ER) in their wet phase amplify the activity of high-frequency waves (TD, MRG) and suppress them in the dry phase. The results stress that more attention should be paid to tropical waves when forecasting rainfall over northern tropical Africa.

Open access