ABSTRACT

The impacts of the differential phase of incident radar waves (ψi) on measured differential reflectivity (ZDR), differential phase, and correlation coefficient from ice cloud particles are presented for radars employing simultaneous transmission and reception of orthogonally polarized waves (SHV radar design). The maximal values of ZDR and the differential phase upon scattering (δ) from ice particles are obtained as functions of ψi. It is shown that SHV δ from ice particles can exceed a dozen degrees whereas the intrinsic δ is of a few hundredths of a degree. In melting layers, the δ values from particles obeying the Rayleigh scattering law can be several degrees depending on ψi so that, to explain such δ values, an assumption of resonance scattering is not necessary. The phase δ affects the estimation of specific differential phase (KDP) in icy media and, therefore, the phase δ should be measured. The radar differential phase upon transmission ψt is a part of ψi and, therefore, affects the δ values. A radar capability to alter ψi by varying ψt could deliver additional information about scattering media.

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