Abstract

While it is understood that a recurving tropical cyclone (TC) that interacts with the midlatitude flow can cause large changes to the midlatitude flow pattern, it is much less understood if, and how, such events could impact a downstream tropical cyclone. Here, an indirect TC interaction is defined as one in which a primary TC perturbs the downstream midlatitude waveguide within one synoptic-scale wavelength of a secondary TC. In this study, a climatology and composite analysis using ERA-Interim reanalysis data is completed for all indirect interactions occurring between two tropical and/or subtropical cyclones in the North Atlantic and western North Pacific basins between 1989 and 2018. In all, 26 cases are identified in the North Atlantic and 56 cases are identified in the western North Pacific. The composite-mean interaction between a primary TC and upstream trough amplifies the immediate downstream ridge, increasing the tropospheric-deep vertical wind shear on its poleward and, in the western North Pacific, eastern, and equatorward flanks. An amplified downstream trough is detectable farther downstream in the western North Pacific 1–2 days after interaction onset; however, the same is not true in the North Atlantic, in which some cases exhibit anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking of the immediate downstream ridge. Secondary TCs that weaken following the indirect-interaction events are primarily located along the gradient between the downstream ridge and trough (North Atlantic) or at high latitudes (western North Pacific); those that strengthen are primarily located equatorward of the downstream ridge, particularly in the western North Pacific.

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