Abstract

An adaptive implicit–explicit vertical transport method is implemented in the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW), and improved integration efficiency is demonstrated for configurations employing convective-allowing horizontal and vertical resolutions. During the warm season over the continental United States, stable forecasts at convective-allowing resolutions are more challenging because localized regions of extreme thermodynamic instability generate large vertical velocities within thunderstorms that cause the integrations to become unstable because of violations of the Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) condition for the explicit advection scheme used in WRF-ARW. The implicit–explicit vertical transport scheme removes the CFL instability but maintains accuracy for typical vertical velocities. Tests using this scheme show that the new scheme permits a time step that is 20%–25% percent larger, and it reduces the wall clock time by 10%–13% percent relative to a configuration similar to a current operational convection-allowing model while also producing more realistic updraft intensities within the most intense storms. Other approaches to maintain stability are either less efficient (e.g., reducing the time step) or significantly impact the solution accuracy (e.g., increasing the damping and/or reducing the latent heating, which severely limits the updraft magnitudes during the forecasts).

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